Style 2003


11 Margarita N. Kožina (Perm)
Modern stylistics and the theory of speech

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The article deals with the problems of modern functional stylistics development and its correlation with the theory of speech. Functional stylistics is regarded as a complex linguistic discipline (or a complex of disciplines) which studies speech in various aspects (including stylistic). The author stresses the role of the modern linguistic and social situation as the basis for the development both of stylistics and the theory of speech. Various trends and problems of modern stylistics, as well as numerous works on the problems of Slavonic stylistics, are viewed.

29 Stanisław Gajda (Opole)
Contemporary Polish Stylistics

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The structural paradigm dominated the Polish after-war stylistics till the 70s. The Warsaw (Polish) structural school (represented among others by M. Głowiński, J. Sławiński, M.R. Mayenowa) dominated literary stylistics and referred to achievements of Russian formalists, the Prague school and R. Jacobson, whereas the functional stylistics (H. Kurkowska) had a distinguished position in linguistic stylistics.
The structural paradigm has evolved since the 70s. It has absorbed the inspirations from the theory of communication, text theory and pragmalinguistics. Poststructural stylistics (cf. intertextuality) and cognitive stylistics were present in the 80s and 90s. Leading researchers (including J. Bartmiński, T. Dobrzyńska, S. Gajda, R. Nycz, T. Skubalanka, A. Wilkoń) have built their syncretic stylistic ideas, in which a continuation of the tradition is enriched with new concepts. The discursive and cognitive tendencies are present in them.

43 Branko Tošović (Graz)
Stylistic categories

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In his work the author starts from the fact that stylistic categories must be interpreted within (a) the general category system, (b) the language category system and (c) the disciplinary category system, namely within the disciplines dealing with stylistic issues. Such an approach is seeking the answer to the question: (1) what is a stylistic category, (2) what position does it hold in the stylistic category system, (3) what category types exist, and (4) how are stylistic and language categories related. The basic part of the research concerns the distinction between a stylistic category, on the one hand, and the stylistic concept, stylistic meaning, stylistic form, stylistic function and stylistic procedure on the other.
The author introduces new concepts into the stylistic category system, primarily the stylistic correlational, projectional, interactional and categorial. The stylistic correlational is a system of homogeneous and heterogeneous relations of stylistic occurrences. The stylistic projectional is formed by individual perspectives: the combination of two of them (eg. the logical and stylistic ones) produces the bi-projectional (say, the logical-stylistic projectional), the interaction of three perspectives – the ter-projectional (eg. the stylistic logical-syntactic projectional) etc. The stylistic interactional includes the relations between stylistic forms, meanings, functions and categories. What is compatible becomes part of the stylistic categorial.

63 Srdan Bogosavljević (Belgrade)
Demetrius’ Analysis of Types of Style and Stylistic Defects

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This essay unfolds the main ideas of the famous tractate On Style (Peri hermêneias) of an author known as “Demetrius.” The essay contrasts the details of “Demetrius’” unusual conception of the four styles with the analogous ideas of thinkers such as Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and attempts to place it in an ideohistorical context, in spite of the still doubtful date of the origin of the work. Tackling some of the contradictions which plague Demetrius’ inquiry, it shows that especially his premise that a certain class of figures can be assigned to each style is vulnerable to criticism and that, in general, his presentation of the four styles as characteristic tendencies (charaktêres) belies the fact that they nonetheless condense into definite – for the most part arbitrarily segregated – types. It also shows that at least one of Demetrius’ types – namely the “elegant” style (charaktêr glaphyros) – is unnecessarily encumbered with elements foreign to its essence, and that such unwarranted expansions adversely affect even his terminological decisions.
The examination of the comparative advantages and shortcomings of Demetrius’ classification is only a prelude to a critical exposition of his analysis of the four defective styles, each corresponding to one of the four ideal tendencies: the frigid (charaktêr psychros) to the elevated; the repulsive (charaktêr acharis) to the vigorous; the affected (charaktêr kakozêlos) to the elegant; and the arid (charaktêr xêros) to the plain. Instrumentalising many relevant remarks scattered outside the thirty odd paragraphs which contain a rather cursory treatment of the stylistic defects, the essay attempts to pinpoint the elusive meaning of two key categories – the frigid (to psychron) and the affected (kakozêlon) – without, however, coming to satisfactory conclusions, mainly for two reasons: a) although they allegedly referred to two separate classes of defects, these terms had, as Demetrius himself asserts, become almost synonymous; and b) the contrasting term acharis has a clearly circumscribed meaning only when applied to one subclass of stylistic deformations within the all-too inclusive category of the elegant style. This being so, it is tentatively suggested that terminological clarity would require retaining only two “labels” which denote distinct “positive” characteristics: kakozêlon and xêron.
Although Demetrius’ work brings a remarkable refinement of Aristotle’s discussion of “frigidities” in the third book of Rhetoric, it fails to fulfil both its classificatory and its analytical purposes. On the other hand, since not one of the numerous similar efforts from Aristotle up to the present day has yielded better results, it seems that classifying stylistic aberrations is a formidable task indeed.

85 Miloje M. Rakočević (Belgrade)
Language and Style in a Relation to Structure and Composition (on examples from Njegoš’s works)

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The article raises a certain, specific and little known, or even completely unknown relation, mentioned in the title – the relation of additional coding. First the author suggests the hypothesis, later providing the evidence that the poet-creator is, knowingly and intentionally, realising one such coding with a view to achieving a unity of the composition form and the poetic-philosophical substance. Thus one permanently remains on the line of achieving “general harmony”, in terms of establishing the harmony of the poetic with the global universe. That it is so, has been shown on the model of Njegoš’s works, corresponding with the works of his great predecessors, Homer and Dante, with their (assumed) influences on him. According to the author, Njegoš intentionally composed the structure and composition of every large enough work of his in such a way that they in themselves (the composition and structure) include a code which in principle expresses the same thing expressed by the verse. Furthermore, Njegoš’s language and style, apart from being the instruments of artistic phrase and expression, are at the same time functioning as that additional covert coding. In that way Njegoš is exploring the language itself, especially its powers in distributions and distinctions related to the static quality of norms and standards. As a specific example, the author quotes a characteristic place from The Light of the Microcosm, where Njegoš wrote backwards the words with which he labelled “renegades from Heaven”: Prince of Evil (Knez Zla = Alzzenk), Evil Spirit (Duh Zli = Ilzhud), Head of Evil (Glava Zla = Alzavalg), and Heaven Hater and Yaobaz likewise, actually in order to show how Njegoš explores the language (saturation with liquids r and l and with the voiced fricative z), and how such “reversals” by Njegoš can be brought into a meaningful relation with Dante’s palindromes – verses which can be equally read from both ends (“En giro torte sol ciclos et rotor igne” or “In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni”). On the other hand, both are only expressions of the “general harmony”, because it is now known to science that most genes in living organisms actually are palindromes. The article also points out a sequence from the string of natural numbers, wherefrom, according to certain strict criteria, have been chosen – the number of verses in the Iliad and the Odyssey, and in an inversion of the sequence, a number of verses in Njegoš’s Mountain Wreath. Taking a critical approach to the current theories of coding, where the alphanumeric quality is only a convention, and it must be the crucial characteristic of all natural codes, the author points out that Njegoš in his works, in a peculiar way, also coded the use of the words letter and number. Thus he used the word letter eight times exactly in The Light of the Microcosm, once in Stephen the Small (in a pair: “from letter to letter”), and not once in The Mountain Wreath, or any other greater work. The word number he used twelve times in The Light, The Wreath and Stephen each, but in different, characteristically varied forms, moving from one work (opus) to the next (the use of number in the adjectival, verbal and nominal meanings).

101 Branimir Čović (Novi Sad)
The Complexity of Styles and Syncretism of Genres in Pushkin’s “Poltava” and the Issue of Its Reception in Serbian Literature

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These lines of research have two basic aims, as well as a number of other, apparently minor, but important ones in solving those priority tasks. The first of these tasks concerns the specific phenomenon of the diversity of styles and syncretism of genres, created as a result of an original creative symbiosis of history and folklore in “Poltava” by A.S. Pushkin. The second task, however, regards the question of one and a half century of its interpretation in Russian literary scholarship and literary criticism, as well as the genesis of all those more or less important stages of its reception in Serbian literature, as follows: starting from the first prose translation into Serbian (1835), which was realised through a German intervening translation from 1831 (both with no mention of the original author’s name – A.S. Pushkin), and also several translations of excerpts from “Poltava” – one penned by Jova Jovanović Zmaj (1887), the other recast by the Montenegrin prince and poet Nikola Petrović Njegoš (1910), along with two poetic translations of the whole poem: by Ivan S. Šajković (1935) and by Milorad Pavić (1952). Šajković’s translation stands out from that series in many ways, as he is not only the translator-recaster of the poem, but a rare translator, “Pushkin’s co-author” who had the audacity to add to and remove verses from Pushkin’s “Poltava”. One of rarely treated questions has also been highlighted in passing: the one on the specific quality of the “author character” putting on various linguo-stylistic masks in different parts of the text, which in the long run affects the diversity of the styles used and the masquerade of narration with a syncretism of prose, poetic and scholarly genres in this, most original of all poetic-prose creations by Alexander Pushkin.

113 Daniela Slančová (Prešov)
Theses to Interactive Stylistics (From Eclecticism to Integration)

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The development of Slovak theoretical stylistics in the second half of the 20th century (mainly its mainstream, represented by the work of J. Mistrík and others) was under a very strong methodological influence of the Prague School and its Slovak application (a fundamental study by E. Pauliny). As a result of new linguistic methodologies and social changes at the end of the 20th century, the need for „new stylistics“ has emerged within the Czech and Slovak linguistic tradition. The present research study is a contribution to the discussion. The main concept of the study is interdisciplinarity and social and verbal interaction. The study is divided into 5 parts: 1. Introduction; 2. The subject of stylistics: stylistics is defined as a linguistic science investigating variability of verbal interaction; 3. Definition of style: style is defined as an individualized manner of verbal interaction which has a qualitative value in a specific communicative act; 4. Inner differentiation of stylistics: stylistic quality as a complex quality is given by a specific configuration of related and more or less hierarchized qualitative information (complex of variables) – further analyzed in the 5th part of the study – which is also the basis for the branches of interactive and interdisciplinary stylistics: linguistic stylistics, paralinguistic stylistics, pragmastylistics, textual stylistics, psychostylistics and sociostylistics; 6. Three research approaches to the stylistic quality of the communicative act are analyzed – descriptive, evaluative and explanative.

129 Elena A. Baženova (Perm)
Stylistic and speech organization of a scientific text

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The article suggests the model of the scientific text stylistic structure determined by the multiaspect content of the cognitive activity. The author develops the concept of epistemical situation and considers the later to be extralinguistical metamodel of a scientific text, which determines its stylistic peculiarity. The structure of epistemical situation is described with regard to its cognitive and anthropological content, which is concretized with the help of the four interconnected aspects of communicative, cognitive activity and scientific knowledge as a result of this activity. The paper defines the concept of a subtext as a means of ontological, methodological, reflective and communicative-pragmatical aspects of the epistemical situation resulted in speech. It reviews 8 types of subtexts which represent the standard content of a scientific text and form its politextuality.

143 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Intimacy in Serbian Scientific Prose

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Intimacy in written communication is a special way of becoming close with an addressee. Applied to scientific prose, intimacy can be observed from several aspects: either as a distinctive case of expressing of linguistic communication dialogue character, or as a specific item of scientific text genre expressiveness, or as a phenomenon related to linguistic conflict domain, or as a phenomenon of irrelevance, etc. From the point of view of the general functional system theory, linguistic communication as a whole, as well as intimacy within written form of the scientific style, turns out to be based on the universal principle of co-operation.
By comparing the state in contemporary Serbian scientific prose with the corresponding one in the previous epochs, certain changes in using of linguistic devices for expressing intimacy can be seen. The standard changes of scientific style of the Serbian language are tightly connected with evolutionary changes of spoken genres. The study of intimacy within the research of Serbian scientific text genre expressiveness should be continued.

157 Irina P. Kudrevatih (Minsk)
The block of the information (BI) and art image (grammar and style)

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Researches of the art text are carried out within systemic organization of language units of different levels which compose the block of the information as intermediate structure between micro- and macrotext. The block of the information as a unit of higher level hierarchy (in comparison with superphrase unity) is characterized by the fact that its projection part, or the nucleus, establishes various semantic relations with BI of other macrothemes, promoting the expansion of the information and its fastening as well. So, the decoding of the art text contents is carried out on the basis of analysis of the logic-grammatical relations which open up between BI on syntagmatical and integrated levels.
Distantly located linear BI arrange thematic unity, and contamination of blocks in its turn enables to control the mechanism of semantic formation of the whole art text as well as to open the links which promote the combination of the lower level units into BI and then into the whole text as logic-grammatical and stylistic unity. The grammatical position of BI in the system of integral dependences is determined by its semantic significance in the macrotheme structure as well as in the whole text.

173 Olga A. Leontovič (Volgograd)
Russian Linguistic Personality: Peculiarities of Communicative Behavior

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The article is devoted to the study of Russian linguistic personality. The latter is defined as a nationally specific type of communicator, with culturally conditioned mentality, worldview, system of values, cognitive approaches, linguistic, behavioral and communicative norms. Cultural identity expressed in all its forms has a direct influence on the character of discourse.
According to Hegel, self-consciousness begins with the awakening of spirit in the form of language. Communication unites linguistic (structural) peculiarities with the specific features of national character. All the contradictions traditionally ascribed to the Russian national character are realized in multiple, sometimes peculiar forms, often totally alien to representatives of other cultures.
Russians are traditionally viewed as sociable, open, and active communicators capable of establishing a meaningful emotional contact with their partners, with a high degree of readiness to produce utterances and receive information from their interlocutors. Scholars point out that Russian emotionality is expressed in language not only by means of numerous invective words, but also diminutives, formulas of politeness, etc. Other characteristic features of Russian linguistic personality are a high level of self-disclosure, passion, and ability to enjoy suffering, brilliantly described by F.M. Dostoyevsky.
Idioms reflect the features of discourse, which are seen as positive in the Russian community: high level of linguistic competency, serious attitude towards the topic of discussion, directness, truthfulness, brevity and reserve in communication. Negative features include the lack of logic and semantic coherence of utterances, unjustified repetitions, a gap between what is said and done, insincerity, etc.
Though conflicts are commonly disapproved of, the value of non-conflict behavior is not so high as in Western countries. Nevertheless, in interpersonal contacts it is not so much conflict as emotional involvement in the process of communication. In case there really is a conflict, the content and relational conflict do not always go together, which often surprises representatives of other cultures.
The peculiarities of Russian linguistic personality are specifically implemented in the process of intercultural communication. On the one hand, it is characterized by the desire to preserve the purity of the Russian language, alongside with folk morals, mentality, and values, on the other – curiosity and openness towards new knowledge, and the habit to measure Russian life by Western standards. Russian deep self-criticism is reinforced by the Western negative attitude towards Russia.
The author foresees three possible ways of development of Russian linguistic personality in the modern multicultural world: 1) development in accordance with the Western matrix, assimilation of foreign linguistic and cultural influences accompanied by gradual ousting of Russian cultural peculiarities; 2) isolationism and decisive separation from the West; 3) the emergence of a specific Russian model of development, which would combine Russian cultural and historic experience with the best Western achievements. The author sees the latter model as the most favorable for effective communication.

187 Barbara Stawarz (Kraków)
Repetition, recollection and recognition. On the function of repetitio in the lyric verse of Russian pre-romanticism and romanticism

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The article is devoted to the issue of functioning of the technique of repetitio in the Russian elegy in the era of pre-romanticism and romanticism.
Thanks to such variations of repetitio as anaphora, polysyndetone or gradation all the most important features of the lyrical hero of the elegy, the melancholic man, are strengthened and developed. These include: longing for the origin, depressive states, lack of existential aims, negation of reality, obsessive memory, aiming at self-awareness and the feeling of imprisonment.

197 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
Semantic features of antonyms and syntactic means of their realization in the language of poetry

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In this paper, in specifically used antonymic pairs, we have tried to reveal their semantic features, and to indicate some peculiarities which the poetic text illustrates. The basic mechanism of the poetic text is a parallelism which is also realized through antonymic two-part oppositions. Structural parallelisms (which the antonymic pairs also belong to) reveal essential relations between the used units of natural language. The meaning of one element can only be perceived in its relation to another one. As lexical units enter a dictionary out of a context, they realise their meanings in a syntagmatic chain, within a sentence. Therefore the whole antonymic system of relations which is based on binary oppositions of elements depends on their syntactic relations. Antonyms are interrelated through various syntactic relations, thus forming complex semantic structures. This shows that contrasted linguistic units as elements of antonymic structures achieve their unity of meaning through a pair of antonyms at a higher linguistic (syntactic) level.
After a thorough analysis, we have discovered that 10 essential antonymic meanings have been realised in 70 different syntactic structures, and that each meaning is on average covered by 7.00% syntactic structures, but each of the meanings includes a different number of syntactic structures. Our research has shown that although the text in question is poetic, the text of poetry, it is dominated by real antonyms, typical of natural language, with 55.23%. This indicates that natural language as a primary model even in poetry prevails over poetic language as secondary. The significant presence of contextual antonymic relations with 44.77% is a result of the poetic text, namely of poetic language. However, we have demonstrated that the discovered quasi-antonymic oppositions in the poetic text can by analysis be reduced to a real antonymic relation. And that’s natural, because, if this were not possible, it would be out of question in such situations to talk about the occurrence of antonyms.

215 Lidija V. Saveljeva, Svetlana V. Škilj (Petrozavodsk)
The Category of Colourings and Linguopoetic Norm (on the lyric material of I. Bunjin and M. Kuzmin)

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The conducted stylistic research of the category of “green” and “red” colourings in the lyric poetry of I. Bunjin and M. Kuzmin is based on the concept of linguopoetic norm at the lexical-idiomatic level. That norm emerges from the literary and folklore traditions. By comparing fragments of two lyric images of the world, a macrocontextual relationship is established between the idiolect, the literary movement and lyric communication as a separate subsystem of the poetic language.
Whereas Bunjin’s literary range is characterised by metonymic shifts and an objective shrewdness of the artist’s look, colour marking with Kuzmin is characterised by a metaphoric quality, synesthesia and euphony.

229 Elena G. Zadvorna, Irina A. Erofejeva (Minsk)
To the probleme of Joseph Brodsky’s cognitive style

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The article is centred around such features of Joseph Brodsky’s cognitive style as an emphasized subjectivity of his mental position, the accentuation of the universe’s polyvariativity, the refusal to postulate the ultimate and objective truth. These features are made manifest firstly, in the specific use of mental belief mode, secondly, in a syntactic complication of Brodsky’s texts (numerous parenthetic, appended, embedded etc. constructions). This syntactic complication related to Brodsky’s cognitive style is especially evident in his lyrical texts.

241 Larisa Razdobudko-Čović (Novi Sad)
On the Language and Style of Stefan Mitrov Ljubiša
(Stylistic ornaments in Ljubiša’s work: synonym paremy blocks, phrase strings, and comparative constructions)

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This work represents a continuation of my systematic research on the language and style of Stefan Mitrov Ljubiša, which I presented at two scholarly meetings on Ljubiša’s work and in the monograph “Ljubiša’s ‘Pearl Box’”. It, however, investigates the phenomena of Ljubiša’s original stylistic ornament made up of synonym structure blocks, linked up into strings of proverbs, wise sayings, phrases and comparative constructions. It specifically examines the original method of linking up proverbs into strings, among which I singled out 24 representative samples.

251 Switlana Iwanenko (Kiew)
Понятие межкультурной соотнесенности автора и ее языковое воплощение в текстах художественной литературы

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Статья представляет собою попытку определения понятия межкультурной соотнесенности автора в русле стилистических исследований художественного текста. При этом предлагется определение естественного индивидуализирующего колорита автора (адресанта), под которым понимаются особенности личностного характера, определяемые принадлежностью адресанта к двум или более культурам, и находящие свое речевое воплощение в своеобразии его устной и письменной форм речи, создаваемое не определенной суммой элементов, а представляющее собою гомогенную картину мира автора. Межкультурная соотнесенность автора наиболее четко прослеживается в литературных произведениях мигрантов. Такие произведения демонстрируют три основных состояния взаимодействия разных культур: доминанту исходной культуры, доминанту межкультурного взаимодействия и доминанту культуры страны проживания. Языковыми маркерами естественного колорита автора, на котором лежит отпечаток двух либо более культур, являются интернационализмы (большей частью европеизмы), редко употребляемые в рамках культуры страны проживания; языковые реалии страны происхождения автора – носители своеобразных тем их произведений; экспрессивная лексика и стилистические фигуры, создающие необычную образность и необычные образы; особый ритм и широкий диапазон тональностей.

259 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
The fragmentary novel–chronicle from the end of the 20th century
(“The Heritage of the Lost Flutes”, “Oats on the Roofs” and “Wooden Pyramids” by Jindřich Zogata: the features of the genre, style and poetics)

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The author of the present study analyses the genre of the 20th-century fragmentary chronicle novel on the material of the so-called Silesian trilogy by Jindřich Zogata The Heritage of the Disappeared Pipes (Dědictví zmizelých píšťal, 1996)‚ Oats on the Roofs (Oves na střechách, 1996) and The Wooden Pyramids (Dřevěné pyramidy, 1998). The novels are written in the form of the novel chronicle which was cultivated in the course of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries, especially in Slavonic and Scandinavian literatures (S.T. Aksakov, N.S. Leskov, J. Holeček, Knut Hamsun, V. and A. Mrštík etc.).

Zogata’s prose depicts the region situated on the border of Moravia, Slovakia and Poland from the First World War up to the 1940’s. The poetics of the novel reflects the morphological principles of the genre’s construction: it is oriented on the region and on the stability of life forms. Zogata’s novels contain an interesting mechanism permanently restoring the balance of the lyric, epic and dramatic elements. The poet Zogata has to fight with his lyric talent to realise the synthesis of the above-mentioned elements aiming at the formation of the multicultural, boundary, interethnical, experimental palimpsest. From this aspect, his poetics seems to be traditional and antitraditional at the same time.

273 Marija Ilieva (Veliko Trnovo)
Pronouns and Taboo

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In this study the author defends the thesis that the Bulgarian national psychology has tabooed the subject of sexual relations. This thesis is discussed in a general humanitarian aspect while the conclusions are based on linguistic material (colloquial speech, lexical representation, folklore sources, subtitles) as well as on articles of Bulgarian philosophers and literary critics. A major task of the study is to motivate the place of the pronouns in the process of euphemization by systematizing the various types of pronouns that take part in this process and by relating this use of theirs to their semantics and to their deictic function. It is pointed out in conclusion that the pronouns not only participate actively in the process of euphemization but that they also allow maximum adequacy in understanding the process of communication due to the combination of two contrary tendencies – one toward non-concreteness (a result of their inadequate semantics out of context) and another toward definiteness expressed also in a formal grammatical way.
Only time will show whether the certain freedom in a part of the contemporary literature is a significant phenomenon with lasting consequences or it is only an imitative phenomenon. The author points out that for the present this phenomenon could not be interpreted as a linguistic fact and that the taboo on the direct appellations of parts of the human body connected with the sexual relations and on some of their functions is a specific characteristic of the standard speech of the Bulgarians. The pronouns successfully distinguish the refined standard speech due to their ability to assume or to lose semantic nuances in context – an ability that serves the non-linguistic prejudices that have imposed the taboo.

283 Dorota Brzozowska (Opole)
Jokes about Women in Poland

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Цель настоящей статьи – акцентировать связь анекдотов и социокультурного контекста. Анализ проводился на материале 300 польских анекдотов о женщинах. Тексты почерпнуты из разных источников (газеты, бюллетени, интернет, просторечно-разговорная речь). Во многих анекдотах представлен образ женщины в кругу семьи; потому особо подчеркивается роль женщины как жены, любовницы, матери, свекрови/тещи.. В анекдотах о женщинах и любовницах чаще всего имеют место неверность и господствующая оппозиция секс/отсутствие секса. В анекдотах о матерях наиболее типичной характеристикой является забота, тогда как в текстах о свекрови/теще – ненависть и страх. Женщины в анекдотах привлекаются к выполнению почти всех домашних дел, в частности – варки и уборки. В их обязанность входит выращивание детей, проявление заботы о них. Сопоставительным анализом отдельных характеристик и социологического описания семейной жизни обыкновенной польской женщины подтверждается тезис о том, что социальная ситуация оказывает значительное влияние на мировоззрение, представленное в анекдотах.

295 Anna Ginter (Łódz)
Slang as the Third Language in the Process of Translation: A Clockwork Orange in Polish and Russian

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Настоящая статья представляет собою попытку анализа способов перевода сленга в тексте Берджесса Заводной апельсин, учитывая прежде всего нелингвистические факторы. Предметом исследований являются здесь переводы на польский и русский языки.

Автор статьи показывает сложность процесса перевода сленга – языка сотворенного как средство коммуникации между членами молодежного ганга. В тексте подлинника Берджесс в большой степени использовал русский язык как источник для образования новых слов. Этот искусственный язык, вписанный в конструкцию романа, вызывает ассоциации, относящиеся к политической ситуации во время Холодной войны.

Роберт Стиллер, автор двух переводов на польский язык, предложил два языковых варианта романа: в первом из них он подражает автору подлинника, применяя русский язык в качестве источника; второй, однако, следуя политическим изменениям в истории Польши, основывается на английском языке. Каждый из этих текстов вызывает у польского читателя особые ассоциации, совершенно другие, чем текст оригинала у английского читателя.

Роман Берджесса на русском языке представляет совсем другой подход к проблеме перевода «третьего языка». Следует подчеркнуть, что Бошняк оказался перед необыкновенно трудной задачей: достичь того эффекта, который Берджесс достиг с помощью русского языка (ощущаемого как иностранный). Кажется, что переводчик здесь должен образовать сленг, основанный на английском языке, который занимает противоположную позицию по сравнению с русским. Бошняк, однако, отказался от применения в тексте нового языка и использовал лишь слова и выражения разговорного стиля.

Многочисленные примеры, приводимые в тексте статьи, подтверждают взаимное наложение лингвистических и нелингвистических аспектов, свидетельствуют о том, что процесс перевода требует от переводчика изобретательности и терпения в поисках наиболее соответствующего языкового эквивалента.

307 Guy Russell Torr (Kraków)
Time for Tea – An Examination of Problems Associated with the Translation of English Mealtime Terms

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Статья представляет собою попытку анализа проблем перевода на иностранные языки английских слов, терминов и концепций, связанных с едой. Автор статьи показывает сложность и неправильные представления при переводе на иностранные языки (включая польский) даже некоторых «простых» английских терминов, как lunch, tea, dinner, supper на иностранные языки в том числе и на польский. Статья содержит объяснения стилистических значений этих терминов в английском языке, показывает на материале разных литературных источников, что именно такие элементарные слова могут стать проблематичными для польского (и не только) переводчика.

321 Milana Radić-Dugonjić (Belgrade)
An addition to the research of invariant and variant characteristics of the concepts of emotions in Serbian and Russian languages (based on the material of the original novel Migrations by Milosh Crnyansky and it’s Russian translation)

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A special place in the complex structure of cultural concepts in the language personality frame belongs to the system of emotions. Primary place in means of complexity and universality among the basic systems in the “linguistic image of the world” – among which the physical perception, physiological conditions, physiological reactions, wishes, intellect, speech, etc. (Y. Apresyan) are distinguished.

The subject of this article is the analysis of the basic characteristics of the field of categorical concept of faith: relations of individual (author’s) and collective Serbian language personality, relations of individual (translator’s) and collective Russian language personality, and also the relations between the two language personalities (of author and of translator).

331 Jovan Ajduković (Belgrade)
On the Concept of “Contact-Styleme”

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The contact-styleme is a language contact unit at the stylistic level. If the styleme is the minimal stylistic unit and carrier of the structural-stylistic information of the language unit, then a given unit in a certain contact situation is named the contact-styleme. The contact-styleme has a stylistic function and carries the language contact information. In the paper we allocate four kinds of contact-styleme and three types of lexical-stylistic adaptations of russisms.

339 Alena Jaklová (České Budějovice)
Die Flurnamen deutscher Herkunft in der südböhmischen Region

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Der Aufsatz grenzt die südböhmische Region ein und charakterisiert ihren Besiedlungsprozeß vom 10. bis Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts. An dieser Besiedlung beteiligten sich neben den Slawen (Tschechen) auch Deutsche. Es ist off enkundig, daß die geographische Lage Südböhmens, aber auch das langandauernde bis ins Mittelalter reichende Zusammenleben mit der deutschen und der österreichischen Bevölkerung, sowie die Zugehörigkeit zur Habsburger Monarchie (1. Hälft e des 16. Jhs. – 1918.) und die wechselseitige Vermischung der Kulturen, – daß dies alles jahrhundertelang dazu beitrug, daß viele Wörter deutscher Herkunft in den tschechischen Wortschatz eindrangen. Das betraf auch die Flurnamen, weil die Tätigkeit der deutschen Bevölkerung eng mit dem Land und mit der Landschaft verbunden war. Der Aufsatz charakterisiert ebenfalls das Sprachmaterial, das in den vorigen 20 Jahren gesammelt wurde und auf dessen Basis diese Studie entstand. Die am häufi gsten gebrauchten Flurnamen in Südböhmen sind Grundstücksnamen, Hydronyme und Oronyme. Im Text wird weiter die Semantik dieser Namen beschrieben, phonologische Veränderungen um morphologische Anpassung an die tschechische Sprache.

345 Nenad Krstić (Belgrade)
L’analyse comparative et stylistique d’une fable
(Le Lion, le Loup et le Renard de La Fontaine et de Dositej)

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Dans le présent exposé, nous avons présenté une analyse comparative et stylistique de la fable Le Lion, le Loup et le Renard de Jean de La Fontaine et de la fable Lav, kurjak i lisica de Dositej Obradović. Pour mieux suivre l’analyse, nous avons présenté d’abord le texte de l’auteur français, et ensuite le texte de l’auteur serbe.

L’analyse comparative et stylistique a démontré que Dositej était un excellent connaisseur de la langue française; mais soucieux de s’adresser à un large public, il ne se contentait pas toujours du rôle de traducteur: alors il ajoute des mots et même des phrases entières qui changent le caractère de la fable de La Fontaine, car Dositej et tout d’abord écrivain! Comme dans ses écrits didactiques, dans ses traductions il s’efforça de se rapprocher de la langue populaire.

355 Andrew Wachtel (Chicago)
Writers and Society in Eastern Europe 1989–2000: The End of the Golden Age

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Долгое время во всех восточно-европейских странах писатели, занимающиеся, так называемой, серьезной литературой, пользовались уважением и почетом, в особенности в период коммунизма. Однако с распадом коммунистического режима резко изменилось положение писателя в обществе. По данным, полученным из десяти восточно-европейских стран, автор настоящей статьи пытается конкретизировать эти изменения. Выявлено, что крупные изменения произошли не только в отношении материальных условий писательской деятельности бывших официальных литераторов и писателей-диссидентов, но и в плане социального престижа высокой литературы.

Book Reviewsdownload article (2,07MB)

379 Tadeusz Szczerbowski (Kraków)
Chlebda, Wojciech; Gołubiewa, Albina; Wawrzyńczyk, Jan; Wielg, Tomasz. Idiomy polsko-rosyjskie. Польско-русские идиомы – Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2003, 272 s.

382 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
Поэтика композиции и литературоведческая терминология
František Všetička: Tektonika textu. O kompoziční výstavbě české prózy třicátých let 20. století. Votobia, Olomouc 2001.
František Všetička: Kroky Kalliopé. O kompoziční poetice české prózy čtyřicátých let 20. století. Votobia, Olomouc 2003.
Libor Pavera, František Všetička: Lexikon literárních pojmů. Nakladatelství Olomouc, Olomouc 2002.

386 Wiesława Troszczyńska-Nakonieczna (Opole)
Ewa Malinowska, Wypowiedzi administracyjne – Struktura i Pragmatyka, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego, Opole 2001, 175 s.

388 Miroslav Dudok (Bratislava)
Ján Horecký, Jazyk ako fenomén kultúry. Človek a jeho jazyk. Editor: Klára Buzássyová. Bratislava: Veda SAV, Jazykovedný ústav Ľ. Štúra, 2000. 522 s. (ISBN 80–224–0641–4)

390 Elżbieta Sierosławska (Kraków)
Lucyna Wille; Zdzisław Wawrzyniak: Język niemiecki kluczem do języka angielskiego, Język angielski kluczem do języka niemieckiego. Gramatyka konfrontatywna niemiecko-angielska w ćwiczeniach. (Wyd. Kanion, seria Poliglota, Zielona Góra 2002)

395 Nataša Vulović (Belgrade)
Мiloje М. Rаkоčеvić, Njegošev iskonski logos 1, „Interpres“, Beograd 2000, 2003, 212 s.
Мiloje М. Rаkоčеvić, Njegošev iskonski logos 2, „Interpres“, Beograd 2000, 2003, 214 s.

397 Aleksandar Milanović (Belgrade)
Novica Petković, Publicistička stilistika, Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva, Srpsko Sarajevo 2003, 256 s.

400 Milena Stojanović (Pančevo)
Dobrivoje Stanojević, Retorika „Zlatnog runa“, Mali Nemo, Pančevo, 2001, 170 s.
Dobrivoje Stanojević, Stilistikа „Zlatnog runa“, Mali Nemo, Pančevo, 2002, 148 s.

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