Style 2004


11 Margarita N. Kožina (Perm)
Speech science: functional stylistics and discourse analysis

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The article deals with the problem of correlation between discourse analysis and functional stylistics (the features of similarity and distinction) as disciplines of speech science against the background of one of the dominant trends of modern linguistics – functionalism.

25 Branko Tošović (Graz)

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This article analyses the theoretical aspects of one of the most important stylistic categories - expressiveness. In the first part expressive is distinguished from concepts such as emotional, stylistic, dramatic, illustrative, connotative, aesthetic, the second interprets expressiveness solely as a stylistic category, whereas the third treats it at the level of global language differentiation. The author distinguishes several types of expressiveness and classifies them.
Expressiveness is a category of stylistics, linguistics, theory of literature, theory of art, aesthetics, logic and psychology, genetics which at the language plane embraces formal, semantic, functional and category units in their homogeneous and heterogeneous interrelations, which reflect and express a conscious subjective, emotional and/or aestheticized relation of the sender to the recipient or substance of the message.
There are two basic types of expressiveness - coded and decoded. Coded expressiveness represents the sender’s aim to provoke an emotional reaction in the recipient. Decoded expressiveness is created in the process of deciphering the sender’s orientation, which is performed by the recipient and which produces the emotional reaction.
Regarding the realisation character, immanent and contextual expressiveness are distinguished. The former is created by the units which are expressive in themselves, for example authorial neologisms, subjective opinion suffixes, etc. The latter includes the units which under certain conditions become expressive agents, eg. scholarly terms. On the general linguistic plane, there are stratum and lectal expressiveness.

63 Ján Findra (Banská Bystrica)
Style as the model structure

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In connection with thinking about the new paradigmatic order of elements and components of stylistic semantics the author’s starting point is the idea of style as the model structure of the surface text organisation. The term text is considered to be the basic stylistic term in this concept. Methodological approach points out its division into potential (emic) and actual (real, concrete) text. This division is connected with distinguishing the invariant and variant as well as with the tension between paradigmatic and syntagmatic axis. There is a relation (connection) between individual and social in the real text as the result of speech activity in particular communication. The potential text as a langue term is in general represented by text models of invariant character. They are classified by rules, consequences, and mechanisms which function as a basis for creating particular texts (actual, real texts). According to the bilateral character of the text it is necessary to distinguish in the system level between the text model structures, which are a functional model base for the surface text organisation, and the model structures, which are an invariant frame of the in-depth text organisation. Concerning outlined dynamics of relation between the content and the form, the text is a functional succession (connection) of content-thematic segments (coherence) and language-composition elements and components (cohesion).
Style as the model structure represents only one aspect of the text. Therefore the functional language style as the model of the surface text organisation is generalised, over-individual, and invariant principle of styleme choice and organisation, which is created on the intersection point of relevant factors in communication, style-creating factors, and style and communication norms. Hence the style in the system level represents invariant, over-individual (social) set of rules and consequences. The process of text production activates the rules in the author’s mind automatically – subconsciously or intentionally – and at the same time they are individually verified, it means unrepeatedly realised. The real text is then an identical copy of the style model and its negation at the same time, but not its betrayal. The more the sender as a subjective transformer is aware of the tension between invariant (model) – variant, over-individual – individual, objective – subjective, the more he is free in producing the real text.
Style as the model of the surface text organisation is synchronically created on the intersection point of three groups of factors and characteristics.
1. Style-creating factors – relate to factors characteristic for communication. They are non-verbal and extra-linguistic factors belonging to the communication competence of communicators. This group includes following opposite features: i) public – private, ii) formal – informal, iii) written – oral, iv) monological – dialogical, v) with receiver’s presence – with receiver’s absence, and vi) of communicative function – of aesthetic function.
2. Text features which are conveyed by language and compositional elements (stylemes) in the particular text. They are as follows: foregrounding, briefness, ambiguity, objectivity, professionality, notionality, accuracy, persuasiveness, attractiveness, situational contextual relationship, subjectivity, impressiveness, variableness, universality, and explicitness.
3. The functional correspondence between the surface and in-depth text organisation. Style as the invariant model of the surface text organisation is in contact with a composition procedure as the model of the in-depth text organisation. The content text models intend to modify the formal text model. Mainly language stylemes (especially lexical) respond to the influence of the in-depth text organisation in the process of real text production.

71 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Style as a useful result

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It is being proved, in this paper, that style as a fundamental characteristic of a text functions according to the same principle as all bio and sociosystems do.

85 Maria Wojtak (Lublin)
In the range of stylistic paradoxes – comments about utilitarian texts

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The article presents the stylistic description of the utilitarian texts collection, serving for practical purposes. The author describes the genological variability of the utilitarian texts, characterizing their genre patterns, which have different status and changeable number of the variants. First of all she shows diversity of the analysed. Its features form the collection, that is based on the paradoxes.

97 Srdan Bogosavljević (Belgrade)
Aristotle’s theory of “frigid” style

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Aristotle’s conception of ta psychra (“frigidities”), as it is espoused in Chapter 3 of Book III of Rhetoric, has not met with scholarly attention commensurate to its importance both in itself and as the most influential reference of all the subsequent discussions of that and related stylistic phenomena. If touching upon the subject at all, the scholars have generally limited themselves to a brief summary of Aristotle’s rather cursory remarks, without venturing a further analysis let alone a critical examination of his views. And with a good reason: the problem contains so many different facets, involves so many heterogeneous criteria and perspectives, presupposes a knowledge of the – missing – specific context of the supporting examples – it is, in short, so intricate as to almost defy every attempt to order it conceptually.
Aristotle’s chief criterion for branding an expression as “frigid” – “all too poetic for prose” – draws its apparent authority from the proportion principle of propriety (to prepon). This criterion cannot however be purely qualitative for the simple reason that the defamiliarization demand on all formal speech (“prose”) necessitates the employment of those very devices which, except for metaphor, are excluded from everyday speech. Both the analysis of the examples of “frigid” expressions in Chapter 3 and a comparison between them and the examples of the so-called asteia (urbane expressions) in Chapters 9 and 10 show further that in most cases there are no reliable qualitative standards by which to differentiate an “urbane” from a “frigid” expression, for most often both classes possess the same qualities, save for one: the (immeasurable) quality of being well liked as opposed to being disliked because “unpleasant.”
The imperative that the orator should seem to speak not artificially but naturally undermines the role of the proportion principle in establishing the upper limit of defamiliarization in prose: it turns out that the orator should uphold the illusion of naturalness solely for the sake of not arousing the suspicion of his audience, which like to be cheated yet do not like to notice the “theft.” As a result, “frigid” is everything which due to its all-too poetic quality (its artificiality) destroys that supposedly vital illusion.
The “psychologistic” criterion of naturalness leads to yet another criterion: that of persuasiveness. Derived from the very telos of all formal speech (to persuade), this criterion establishes itself as the central standard of frigidity by marginalizing the proportion principle: “frigid” is from now on any stylistic element which – regardless of its “intrinsic” qualities – impedes the achievement of the telos of speech. And conversely: an element of style is not frigid as long as it does not hinder it! Since, on the one hand, a speech can be labeled as “frigid” exclusively on the basis of its effects, and since, on the other hand, these vary from one “context” to another, it is not possible to theoretically isolate the constituents of frigidity. Coupled with an inflexible application of the standard of “naturalness,” this hypostasis of persuasiveness leads to an almost complete dissolution of the notion of ta psychra as a specific class of stylistic defects.

121 Radivoje Kerović (Banjaluka)
Anthropologische Stilgrundlagen

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In dieser Arbeit verweist der Autor auf ausserestetische und ausserliterarische Aspekte des Stilproblems. Indem er anthropologisch – metaphysische Voraussetzungen und die Grundlagen des Stilproblems als estetische und literarische kategorien darstellt, vertritt er die These, dass sich die tiefen Gründe dieses problems schon in der elementaren Struktur des menschlichen Daseins in der Welt und in seiner Bezieuhung gegenüber der Realität und dem eigenen Leben verbergen. Falls der Mensch das eigene leben versteht, ihm einen Sinn gibt, es wahrhaftig macht und zwar immer mittels eines schöpferischen und formgebenden Verhältnisses der Realität und dem Inneren seines Wesens gegenüber, so zeigt sich auch die Art und die Weise dieser Sinngebung und dieses formgebenden Verhältnisses als wesentlich für seine gesamte Existenz. Daher kann man, so der Autor, auch von einem Lebensstil und einem Kulturstil sprechen, und nicht bloss von einem Stil in der Literatur und Kunst. So bietet sich auch für den Begriff des Stils in der Stilistik, vermittelnd, eine viel breitere anthropologisch – metaphysische Grundlage dar.

131 Switlana Iwanenko (Kiew)
Модель текста и текстовая категория тональности

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Статья представляет собой попытку определения места текстовой категории тональности в модели текста. Основываясь на постулате лингвистики текста о том, что тексты моделируются, современная филология обобщает в модельном плане наработанные представления о тексте и его структуре. Продуктивным подходом к процессу моделирования представляется объединение в обобщенной модели как текстовых (композиционно-речевые формы, тональности, архитектонико-речевые формы), так и внетекстовых (экстралингвальных) элементов (сфера деятельности коммуникантов, коммуникативная ситуация: адресант, адресат, тема (предмет коммуникации), коммуникативная цель, канал коммуникации, код, возможность обратной связи, время, место, причинные отношения), конституирующих речевую организацию текста. При этом предлагается различать функционально-стилевую и жанровую формы текста.
Текст как конструкт имеет свои характеристики, представленные иерархической парадигмой текстовых категорий: гиперкатегория – целостность в биполярном единстве с дискретностью; категории І степени (комплексные) – связность в бинарном биполярном единстве когезии/когерентности, тональность в бинарном биполярном единстве персональности/имперсональности, конечность также в бинарном биполярном единстве завершенности/незавершенности; категории ІІ степени (основные) – композиционно-речевая организованность текста (сообщение, описание, рассуждение и их подвиды), архитектонико-речевая организованность текста (монологичность, диалогичность, полилогичность и выраженность прямой, косвенной и несобственно прямой речи), – «устность»/«письменность»; категории ІІІ степени (простые) – фонологические, грамматические, семантические, стилистические категории.
Тональность является комплексной текстовой категорией первой степени, представленной парадигмой основных стилистических тональностей: лирической, лирико-эпической, лирико-драматической, эпической, эпико-лирической, эпико-драматической, драматической, драматически-лирической, драматически-эпической; тональностей: возвышенной, трагической, патетической, юмористической; подвидов тональностей: субъективно-трагической, объективно-трагической, патетически-трагической, патетически-юмористической, сатирической, иронической, саркастической и тонов: рассудительным, снобистским, интелигибельным, объективно-нейтральным, объективно-фактуальным, бодрым, регулятивным, вежливым, директивным, доказательным, элегичным, просветленным, взволнованным, захватывающим, захватывающе-романтическим, удивленным, возбужденным, трогательным, предостерегающим, сочувственным, доброжелательным, добродушным, добродушно-доброжелательным, смущенным, полным отчаяния, жалобным, экзальтированным, таинственно-электризующим, зловещим, жутким, наивным, простацки-наивным, поучительно-наивным, наивно-энтузиастическим, возвышенным, энергичным, юмористически- саркастическим, поучительным (может быть симулированным), антитетическим, печальным, трагичным, обеспокоенным, увлеченно-зажигательным, страстным таинственным, таинственно-загадочным, взволнованно-печальным, глубоко-печальным, возмущенным, злостивым, обеспокоенным, раздраженным с отвращением, озлобленным, недовольным, и мн. др. Эта парадигма находит свое языковое воплощение в категориях ІІ степени и ІІІ степени, представленных в тексте.

139 Natalia V. Danilevskaja (Perm)
Irrational estimation as “rhetorical canvas” of the speech implementation of scientific knowledge

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The article deals with the problem of text formation peculiarity in the sphere of scientific activity, and mainly with the question of the dynamics of new and former knowledge representation in scientific discourse. Scientific knowledge is treated as a unit of sense structure analysis of text. Former and new knowledge are regarded as components of scientific knowledge, their dialectical unity makes a certain mechanism of scientific text building. It also gives an extralinguistical motivation of the fact, of knowledge components alternation. We also tried to specify the notion of cognitive value as a “first step” of the dynamic development of the action. The aspect of the cognitive value and the text forming role of its expressive component is also scrutinized.

149 Tatjana P. Karpilovič (Minsk)
Information isolation in a scholarly text

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This paper considers the problems of foregrounding in scientific texts using the cognitive-discoursive approach. The analysis of the syntactic means of foregrounding is based on the cognitive phenomenon of attention and the cognitive types of themes suggested by W. Chafe. The theme of the sentence is considered to be its left element which can perform the syntactic function of the subject of the sentence or an adverbial modifier. The cases of foregrounding which are studied in this paper are: 1) the subject of the sentence performing the semantic function of the patient/carrier/feature it expresses new information; 2) adverbial modifiers of place and purpose at the beginning of the sentence. The dicoursive functions of these elements in different parts of the scientific text are revealed. It is shown that in the initial parts of the paper – its abstract and introduction – the authors use new themes to draw the reader’s attention to the main topic or results of the research. The adverbial modifiers of place and purpose in these parts, though conveying the given information, very often signal the following information. The discoursive functions of the foregrounded elements in the main body of the scientific text are to describe in detail the results of the experiments and the methods used. Thus, foregrounding expressed by syntactic means attracts the reader’s attention to the main points of the paper and helps him understand the author’s intentions.

159 Mirčeta Vemić (Belgrade)
Semiotic composition of a geographical map

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The semiotic composition of a geographical map in the course of its elaboration is expressed at all three levels of its generality: individual, particular and general. At the individual or representative level the meanings of all cartographic signs are registered in the key or legend of the map; at the particular, positional level the meanings are communicated in agreement with the elements of the map; and at the general, compositional level the meanings are wholly processed applying constructive integration of the map. The given three phases of map composition and construction are recognized as coding, schematization and stylization.

171 Miloje M. Rakočević (Belgrade)
Language and style in a relation to structure and composition (on examples from Njegoš’s works) [Part II]

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The first part of this article, published in the last issue of Style, introduced a certain, specific and little known, or even totally unknown relation, mentioned in the title – the relation of additional coding. The essence of such coding lies in the fact that the poet-creator, consciously and deliberately, realises the unity of composition form and poetic-philosophical content, thus achieving “general accord”, namely accord with the universal code of nature. We have demonstrated that on the example of Njegoš’s works – on several examples in the first, and on new ones in this, second part of the article. Naturally, Njegoš could not have been familiar with the notion of code itself, which appears as late as the twentieth century (Njegoš lived in the first half of the nineteenth century), but he (Njegoš) could grasp the importance of the relation of word (quality) and number (quantity); in other words, he could come to the conclusion that alpha-numericity is the key characteristic of the world we live in. Njegoš could grasp that all the easier as that relation is expressed even in the spelling-book that he, in his earliest youth, learned from (published as far as 130 years before, and now kept in the Savina Monastery near Herceg Novi). The spelling-book presents alphabets – Greek, Latin, Russian and Polish, and the Greek is followed by numbers “by the church”: alpha with a dot (1), beta with a dot (2), gamma with a dot (3), etc.
The first part of the article presents Njegoš’s letter–digit system, and the second the word–number system, whereas this part also analyses the relation of these two systems. The word letter was used eight times in The Light of the Microcosm, and not once in The Mountain Wreath; in Stephen the Small – once, actually twice in a single line. He used the word digit twelve times in all three parts respectively, in The Light as an adjective (and once as a noun), in The Wreath as a verb (and twice as a noun), and in both ways in Stephen. This sequel to the article shows that he used the second system inversely: actually the word number is found only in The Light, whereas it is absent from both The Mountain Wreath and Stephen. On the other hand, word is used 04, 05, 16 times respectively in The Light, The Wreath and Stephen, which is a realisation of a specific arithmetic algorithm (04+01=05; 05+11=16). It is obvious that this algorithm is the key to any coherent movement in space (“Koraci su moji božestveni / no ja mogu to nazvat prostorom” = “My steps are divine / but I can call that space”), based on the principle of continuity and minimum of change (with the first step, change is to be made by one in one position, and with the second also by one, but in two positions). In that respect, we have shown the relation with analogous and adequate changes in the genetic code.
As a separate topic, in this second part of the article, we have also discussed the order of cantos in the printed and manuscript versions of The Mountain Wreath. Cantos in the manuscript version are ordered as follows: one on defeats and getting killed, followed by two on victories and revenges; then two on defeats and getting killed, and one on victories and revenges. In the printed version: three consecutive cantos are on defeats and getting killed, then three on victories and revenges. Bearing in mind such content of the cantos, as well as the epic composition (the internal structure includes both Montenegrins and Turks, and the external only Montenegrins; only after the order has been varied can the Turks “hear” four instead of only two cantos), it has been demonstrated that the basic order from the manuscript 1–(2–3–4–5)–6 can be sensibly varied in two ways: 1–(5–4–3–2)–6 and 1–(5–4–2–3)–6. Njegoš chose the second solution, as only in that case do we find realisation of symmetry in the simplest form, that is realisation of the relation between the whole and its half.
All these structure and composition variations are additionally coded as the sums of ordinal line numbers form with the determinant words (letter, word, digit, number) arithmetic systems (primarily palindromes: 09390, 55955, 33933, etc.) correspondent to the structure and composition of the universal code of nature. The two orders of cantos in The Wreath are, however, determined by the sums of the number of lines preceding and following the corresponding cantos. [This also clarifies the issue of symmetrical criss-crossing in relation to the direction polijegaše (=they all lied down), which has so far raised many doubts; it has been argued that the form in the text is the result of Njegoš’s intention, and not an “editor’s intervention”, as it has so far been thought].
The point of all these structure and composition variations is their specific reflection on the language and style of the poetic work itself.

197 Daniela Slančová (Prešov)
Stylistics of the virtual world of beauty in a journal designed for the “third millennium woman”

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The article presents an interpretation of the style in the Slovak Miau journal designed for a woman of the third millennium. It conceives of style as an individualized way of verbal interaction that acquires a qualitative value in a specific communication act. The style of a medium is an abstraction relative to the given medium as an individualizing factor, and reflects the identity of the particular medium. The author introduces a hypothesis of “familiar snobbism” as a characteristic style quality of the medium analyzed. Familiarity means stylistic reduction of the distance between the journal and its readers, and evocation of the feeling of intimacy and solidarity. The stylistic quality of snobbism derives from an aesthetic-ethic definition of snobbism as “getting the feeling of importance by identifying oneself with certain values”. Stylistic snobbism implies the tendency towards the feeling of exclusiveness and superiority. The hypothesis is verified by means of an analysis and interpretation of the Cosmetics column style, with the focus being on the lexical facet. A frequency dictionary was developed from a corpus of 15,067 words (3,677 lexemes), covering 18 numbers of the Miau journal. The statistics about the nature of the examined lexis was calculated. It was found out that the analyzed text is a lexically predictable text with a high index of word repetition and high stereotype, on the one hand, and a relatively high dispersion of various words and low grammatical word concentration, on the other. The striking conceptual markedness of expressions follows from the use of foreign appellatives, proper names, clippings, adjectival compounds, terminological and taxonomic words. This gives rise to an impression of notional alienation and almost irrationality of expression, as well as that of notional snobbism. The use of rhetoric figures and frequent metaphors, hyperboles, and epithets contribute to the emotional markedness, and evoke the feeling of irrationality, or virtuality of the world presented. The analysis reveals an artificially personified similarity between the cosmetic industry products and the prestigious symbols of the female mass culture, which engenders aesthetic snobbism. These stylistic features are connected with a familiar, contact-oriented stylistic basis.

209 Anna Ginter (Łódz)
Стилистические и структурные особенности литературного текста в процессе перевода: оценка польского перевода романа Джанет Винтерсон The PowerBook

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Настоящая статья представляет собой попытку анализа способов перевода стилистических и лингвистических средств текста Джанет Винтерсон The PowerBook, учитывая прежде всего структурные особенности подлинника.

Автор статьи обращает внимание на сложность процесса перевода текста, созданного на основе специфического способа повествования. Как доказывают приведенные примеры, английский язык дает возможность использовать такие языковые средства, при помощи которых читатель не в состоянии определить пол главного героя. Такая стратегия оказывается совсем невозможной в польском языке, система которого требует использования лексических средств в зависимости от их грамматического рода. В связи с этим перевод многозначного, хотя одновременно необыкновенно связного текста вызывает у переводчика необходимость внимательного анализа и интерпретации текста оригинала в поисках наиболее соответствующей стратегии.

221 Tetjana V. Radzievska (Kiev)
Some aspects of semantics and style of diary records

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The object of study is diary as a text type, its communicative, semantic and stylistic peculiarities. Diary records are regarded as a result of communicative activity which is determined by absence of real addressee, reiteration, freedom for diarist in selection of lexical and syntactical resources and others. These peculiarities specify both semantics and tone of diary records. Their influence is revealed in forming of at least tree types of utterances. These are: utterances representing self-organizing way of keeping diary records; utterances which reflect auto-communication; utterances of chronological type with memorial function. As to stylistic peculiarities of a diary as a text type we distinguish two main styles of records connected with the mode of representation of an extra-linguistic situation which we name topical and descriptive. Topical style is manifested in reduced syntactic structures, nominative sentences and in its extreme manifestation a record can approximate to a text-list. Descriptive style can be explained by attractiveness to diarist of a written communicative activity. In this case, records contain semantic and syntactic structures which give a full representation of an event described, markers maintaining cohesion, and reproduce some speech forms and genres “borrowed” from other discourses.

235 Irina P. Kudrevatih (Minsk)
Stylistic system of blocks of information (BI) as the reflection of the author’s picture of world

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The systematic organization of the poetic text at a level of distant relations of blocks of information is analyzed in the article. It deals with V. Bryusov and K. Balmont’s lyrics. Similarity and distinctions in construction of blocks of the information and their integrative communications as the condition of interpretation of substantial structure of a work of art are estabished. Within lyrics we establish the opposition of personal pronouns which are a nucleus of lexic-functional-semantical fields. Interaction of fields makes f substantial structure of blocks of the information. Thus, BI in a lyric both monocentrical and policentrical.

251 Ayşe Kiran (Ankara)
Паратопические элементы

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(1) В настоящей работе предпринята попытка проанализировать, опираясь на концепты habitude и habitus, новеллу «Как был спасен Ванг-Фо» Маргерит Юрсенар. Habitude (= обыкновение, привычка) – это механическое и репродуктивное поведение, которое является результатом многократного повторения индивидуальных установок, тогда как habitus представляет собой существование индивида как члена социальной группы. Такое существование индивида распознается, в особенности, по его внешнему виду (напр., одежда, осанка, тон его голоса). В отличие от habitude понятию habitus присущи креативность и плодотворность. Говоря о «паратопе», имеется в виду паразитирующая личность, наталкивающаяся на значительные трудности в поисках уравновешенности и порядка в жизни; потому слово это относится к тем, кому не удается добиться устойчивости в жизни. В отдельных случаях паратопом именуется дополнительная позиция, подразумевающая затруднительный переход от имеющейся позиции к нереализованной. При проявлении паратопом сильных элементов говорят о «максимальной паратопии», при наличии слабых элементов речь идет о «минимальной паратопии».

(2) В анализируемой новелле Линг с своей семьей живет скучной жизнью, причем жизнь (habitus) меняется с приходом в их город бродячего художника. Жена Линга совершает самоубийство. Линг продает целое свое имущество, превращается (habitus) в прилежного, благосклонного, преданного ученика художника Ванг-Фо. Если оживленное полотно и Линг служат паратопическими персонажами, Ванг-Фо на полотне с исчезающей на горизонте баркой оказыватся паратопическим элементом. Когда ученик Линг где-то в конце рассказа уходит из жизни, он становится «минимально паратопическим» персонажем. Однако в конце рассказа он же трансформируется в «максимально паратопического» персонажа, так как он «оживает» и спасает жизнь своему учителю. Ванг-Фо – это не только «минимально паратопический» элемент по причине своей нищеты и преклонного возраста, но и «максимально паратопический» персонаж с художественным талантом, полотнами, возвратом Линга к жизни. Он никогда не подвергается трансформации, являясь как бы символом зрелости или совершенства.

263 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
The Literature of Beneficial Screeching and Friction: Genre – Poetics – Style in the work of Jozef Hnitka

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The author of the present study deals with the novel chronicle of several short stories written by the half-forgotten Slovak prose writer Jozef Hnitka (1913–1992) calling his creative approach “the literature of beneficial screeching and friction”: the genre structure the language and the style are often opposed to each other expressing the author’s conviction that the world is much more complicated than the traditional model of literature allows to express. Therefore Hnitka uses the genre, poetics and style for expressing his untraditional approach to all fundamentalistic truths. His chronicle from the Kysuca region, probably the poorest part of Slovakia, in the 1920s as well as his short stories based on the material of the Slovak national uprising in 1944 represent the warning against the illusions of a simple and unambiguous world and man. The author used the genre, poetics and style to manifest their insufficiency.

275 Irina N. Sofronova (Minsk)
Deontic modality in male and female speech: a view through the prism of artistic prose

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In the article deontic modality is considered as a source of information about the fragment of the world picture that fixes ideas of normative connections between things and phenomena, and deviation from them. A problem of analyzing a group of normative statements with one of the main deontic predicates 'must' with the purpose of defining peculiarities of its compatibility in male and female speech in Russian is posed. Thus the range of actions that are the object of normative regulation in the sphere of everyday interpersonal relations is reconstructed, existing norms of behaviour for both genders are defined, and a subjective attitude of men and women to these norms is revealed. Russian fiction of the second half of the 19th–20th centuries serves as the research material.
The comparing of predicates, being a part of the dictum of the analysed normative statements, lets reveal dependence of propositions, used with deontic modus, on both a speaker s gender and one of the subject of a normative action. The set of predicates defining the male pattern of behaviour is not identical with the one characterizing the female pattern of behaviour. The specificity of distribution is determined by an evident influence of commonly accepted set ideas of the typically male and female. A range of predicates describing a man’s behaviour and qualities differs in a greater variety and coverage of the wider area of human activity.
In the course of the analysis it was elicited that in male and female speech modelled by fiction traditional gender stereotypes that continue to regulate behaviour of and relations between the sexes are constantly reproduced. At the same time men have a more conservative idea of the norms of behaviour toward the opposite sex than women do. In female speech, especially according to the data taken from modern texts, there is a noticeable tendency to blur traditional gender roles.

291 Goran Maksimović (Niš)
World, story and comical style in prose by Stevan Sremac

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This work points Stevan Sremac prose works, which themes are thematically winnowed for Niš and South Serbia: Ivkova slava, Zona Zamfirova, Ibiš-aga, Ćir Mosa Abensaam, Jeksik-adžija, Kalča u pozorištu, Veličanstvena šetnja madam Pompadure, Jusuf-agini politički nazori, Seccesio plebis, Očigledna nastava u turskoj školi. Analytical caution are coursing on type nature these works, language organization these thematical and motivations complex and composition, on protagonist characterize, on comical means and comical nature, on artistical world picture of these extent and reference in authentical reality at the end of XIX century.

307 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
On some properties of anagrams in the poetry of Serbian modernists

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In this article on the material of Serbian modernists’ poetry, the author has tried to determine the formal-structural, contextual-structural, compositional and semantic-stylistic properties of anagrams. As this sound figure has not been specially examined before, we have confronted serious problems of purely terminological nature. It is therefore that we through our own efforts at analysis influenced by the chosen poetic context established many terminological determinants, which can be deemed conditional. Even in cases where there was a certain terminology, it was, in our opinion, neither scientific enough nor too precise, and thus we again made use of our own terms. As regards the formal-structural, contextual-structural and compositional properties of anagrams, our task was to recognize these elements in the appropriate context, to observe the ways of their realization and assign adequate terms to them. The reader will encounter the following terms: (1) on the formal-structural plane – the complete, partial, apparent anagrams; (2) on the contextual-structural plane – the contact, distant, contact-distant, diffused anagrams; (3) on the compositional plane – the leonine, epistrophic, symploce, ring anagrams. However, as regards the semantic-stylistic properties of anagrams, we were forced to seek our own routes of analysis. Our principle of formal approach to meaning is determined by the poetic text where the form gains a special meaning. Bearing in mind the specific (poetic) context and specific (anagrammatic=sound) structures, we observed the semantic-stylistic properties of anagrams in the context of lexical correspondence. In conducting the planned analysis, we first established the formal properties of anagrams. They imply a subsequent establishment of direct contact between expression and content, between the signifier and the signified, between sound and meaning, thus producing complex poetic symbols. Our research has shown that the resulting lexical-semantic structures produce several types of complex poetic symbols, in which the relation of the signifier and the signified is established in different ways, offering various options of their semantisation. We observed this phenomenon within the complete, partial and apparent anagrams. The above anagram structures in some cases reproduce, multiply, create new linguistic symbols and contribute to the semantic enrichment of the context; in other cases they have the stylistic function to lay emphasis on certain words giving them a value greater than in natural discourse; in the third group of cases the semantic and stylistic functions merge into one, thus stressing certain parts of the context and increasing its semantic potential.

327 Sergej Jermolenko (Kiew)
Personal presupposition reversal as a phenomenon of artistic language

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The author argues that specificity of usage of the category of personality in poetic discourse consists not only unusual nature of entities indicated by the 1st and 2nd person but also in the use of the 2nd person in context lacking any address whatsoever, in which case the person in question makes discourse vivid and emotionally saturated. Underlying instances of the later type is the phenomenon which author proposes to call personal presupposition reversal and which takes place when presuppositions connected with the “prototypic” use of the 1st and 2nd person in non-artistic spoken language (such as closeness of interlocutors, their sharing common field of perception etc.) are selectively transformed in poetic language into corresponding explicit semantic features of personal units. In case of the personal pronoun “you” this phenomenon leads to its turning into specifically poetic substantive meaning “beloved one”. As a general precondition of this type of linguistic change, the author regards lack of referentiality peculiar to artistic signs: contrary to non-artistic language where signs denote objects existing “prior” to, and independently of, them, in artistic language sign-object relation is reverted, with signs denoting purely intentional objects existing solely due to their designations. This generally reverted character of sign-object relation makes possible discrepancy between actual author of poetic discourse and so called poetic addresser as well as between actual and “poetic” addressee; it can also materialize in the form of personal presupposition reversal.

339 Zenon Ożóg (Rzeszów)
Poetic prayer as a type of poetic discourse

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The present article is an attempt to feature communicative, stylistic, genological, theological, and literary properties of “poetic prayer” as a particular type of poetic discourse. The paper presents analyses of two poetic texts: Czesław Milosz’s poem Modlitwa [“Prayer”] and Waclaw Iwaniuk’s Hymn [“Hymn”] in order to exemplify the approach presented in the article. The results of investigation have shown that poetic prayer cannot be said to be a separate lyrical genre. It is a discourse type characterized by the properties of both a prayer and poetic writing. Thus, the pieces of poetry that can be assigned to this category display the features of a lyrical text and those of a prayer. The specified parameters of poetic prayer distinguish it from other kinds of poetry.

355 Larisa Razdobudko-Čović (Novi Sad)
History and Imagination in А. Bestuzhev’s Story Roman and Olga

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In the given job “History and Imagination in the story of А. Bestuzhev Roman and Olga” the means language historical stylize of Russian historical story of Bestuzhev Roman and Olga, such as are considered (examined): archaic (phonetic, lexical, semantic, derivation), early phrases the grammatic forms, inversion, and also инкрустации from the early letters. Their classification and regularity of the use in the story is given. The special attention is given to stylistic function эпиграфов and сносок in creation of historical colour. The research is spent on an extensive material of various means historical stylize.

369 Branimir Čović (Novi Sad)
Crnjanski et Radosav Petković: «Le Roman de Londres» vis-à-vis «Le Destin et les Commentaires»

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Les éléments de ressemblances de ces deux romans, publiés à un quart de siècle de distance, se montrent dans de différents niveaux de structure.
1. Tout d’abord, les deux écrivains ont un rapport ambivalent envers le traitement des motifs de «l’inconnu» et des «étrangers». En tenant compte de certaines intentions d’une des branches de la comparatistique contemporaine – l’imagologie, dans laquelle on étudie des images générales d’un peuple dans une autre littérature, ainsi que l’observation d’un héros littéraire qui appartient à une autre culture, une culture étrangère – nous allons essayer d’éclaircir cette problématique de rencontre de différentes cultures en montrant des exemples dans les deux romans «Le Roman de Londres» et «Le Destin et les Commentaires», et en montrant aussi le rapport ambivalent de ces deux écrivains envers le traitement des motifs de «l’inconnu» et des «étrangers».
2. Crnjanski et R. Petković réunissent dans leurs romans «l’histoire» et «la contemporanéité» (par exemple, les deux premiers livres de «Le Destin et les Commentaires» avec «les événements qui se sont passés il y a longtemps» et qui sont montrés par un historien du milieu du XX siècle, Pavle Bojović; dans le roman de Crnjanski ce «dialogue des époques» est implicite et répandu dans toute sa structure.
3. Les deux écrivains se servent de la moderne ars combinatio de modèles narratifs avec un narrateur très actif, et un facteur épique omniprésent, qui s’adresse directement non seulement aux lecteurs, mais aussi aux héros qui, menés par le narrateur, dans certaines parties du texte prennent le rôle du raconteur (Médium), en faisant l’intermédiaire entre l’écrivain et l’événement épique. Mais, dans les deux structures existent un ou deux «centres structuraux», comme l’avait dit Jacques Dérida; par exemple, chez Crnjanski c’est «Le premier chapitre du roman» (Crnjanski 1987: 33–46); chez R. Petković ces centres sont disposés symétriquement dans les deux premiers livres du roman: le premier centre dans le septième chapitre du premier roman (R. Petković 1994: 23–38), le second dans le chapitre XXIV du deuxième roman (R. Petković 1994: 219–226). Dans le premier cas, l’écrivain s’adresse au lecteur pour lui donner un conseil; dans le second cas, «le narrateur confus s’adresse au lecteur tout en espérant que ce lecteur existe».
4. Les ressemblances existent aussi dans la poétique des deux titres: sur le plan global – en forme énigmatique des deux titres, mais aussi sur le niveau des anciens procédés qui avaient un titre pour chaque chapitre.
5. Les incrustations des parties du texte en russe (russe-slave) et en anglais servent en général comme l’autocaractéristique linguistique du langage des personnages principaux ou des écrivains cités dans l’original (par exemple des héros du «Roman de Londres» Nikolaï et Nadezde Rjepin, ou, par exemple, les pensées principales reprises par Gavrile St. Venclović dans le chapitre XXIV (p. 233), et par Atanasie Stojković dans le chapitre XXX (p. 270) de la seconde partie du roman «Le Destin et les Commentaires», etc.), ce qui représente une des plus proches variantes fonctionnelles de la traduction en langue serbe, mais aussi un excellent exemple de la traduction dans et entre-linguistique.
6. Et, enfin (bien entendu, les ressemblances ne se terminent pas là), Crnjanski et Radoslav Petković choisissent, parmi de nombreux procédés modernes, la combinaison des procédés de retardation et de réminiscence. Il faut signaler que les motifs retardés (les digressions, les insertions etc.) dans «Le Destin et les Commentaires» deviennent le dominant facteur épique au moment où se termine le fil de la fabule à sens unique (par exemple dans les chapitres II–XIV du premier livre), tandis que le répertoire de réminiscences (venu de la littérature) est riche et hétérogène (par exemple dans les chapitres XXI, XXVII, XXVIII). De plus, la pensée principale de Petković est hétérogène: elle vient de la littérature et de l’histoire, et elle suggère non seulement le texte qui suit, mais aussi le temps et l’endroit où se passe l’action: tout cela est projeté en arrière, en un autre temps et en un autre endroit, et c’est ainsi que cet endroit et ce temps se relativisent et ils établissent un certain «dialogue des époques».

381 Miroslav Topić, Petar Bunjak (Belgrade)
On strophic models in Polish translations of Serbian folk lyric poetry

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In this paper we are focusing on translations of Serbian folk lyric poetry made by very significant 19th century Polish romantic poets. The subject of our main interest is the usage of various rhyme and strophic patterns by translators in order to follow their own poetic habits or to incorporate their translations into Polish literary tradition.
Serbian folk lyric poetry itself is not deprived of the euphonic ornaments (also the rhymes), as well as of the (potential or accomplished) strophic structure. This may be one of the reasons, why some of Polish translators did their best to build up more complicated rhyme patterns, known from native literary tradition, or to use strophic models that are very distant from folklore customs. Therefore most of translators’ strophic solutions could be marked as a literary promotion of folklore or its bookish adaptation.
On the other hand, thanks to the well-known poets-translators, Serbian folk poetry enriched Polish strophic palette very early by contributing 3–, 5– or 7–verse unrhymed strophes.

401 Igor Burkhanov (Rzeszów)
Перевод драматургических текстов как особый тип дискурса

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Целью данной статьи является определение основных характеристик перевода драматургических произведений как особой разновидности опосредованной двуязычной коммуникации. Драматургический текст, с одной стороны, представляет собой законченное литературное произведение – артефакт, обладающий определенными эстетическими свойствами, с другой стороны, своебразный суррогат, предназначенный для последующей актуализации на сцене. Данные свойства пьесы определяют основные параметры перевода драматургических текстов как особой разновидности дискурса. Различные элементы текста пьесы в разной степени поддаются переводу. Например, ремарки переводятся легче по сранению с драматургической речью. В стилистическом плане драматургическая речь персонажей представляет собой своебразный компромисс между нормами письменной речи и речи устной. Кроме того, драматургическая речь обращена не только от одного персонажа к другому, но и к основному реципиенту высказвания – зрителю. Указанные свойства драматургической речи во многом определяют стратегию перевода текста пьесы. Оценка адекватности перевода драматургических произведений должна опираться в первую очередь на понятие «легкость инсценизации» (performability), которое, в частности включает: a) соответствие перевода современным литературным и/или театральным нормам; б) соответствие диалогов (а также монологов и реплик) персонажей современным произносительным нормам; в) соответствие стиля драматургической речи современным нормам литературного языка и нормам разговорного языка в культуре доцеловой; г) соответствие речевого поведения персонажей темпо-ритмической организации драматургического действия.

413 Andrei A. Bogatirjev (Tver)
Translating artistic text: Verstehen and style (observing the popular translations of the eighth line of “The Raven” by E. A. Poe)

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Any translation of a text is a form of interpretation. The problem of adequacy criteria tends to be treated differently depending on either artistic or non-artistic type of text being translated. Translating of an artistic text imlies not only reconstruction of text content, but also reconstruction of text sense and emulation of style. The latter involves the relationship between Letter and Spirit, the relationship between meaning, content and sense as well as the relationship between word choice and individual conception of poeticity (poeticality) and artisticity. It may also need close ‘Erleben’ in depth of text senses. Hence in case of translating artistic texts there arises a problem of individuation techniques as schemata helpful to grasp and reproduce generic global text intention, concerned with artistic idea. An artistic text may have some local checking points, provoking the reader to test the reflectivity of one’s own text perception. Such cheking points may also be helpful for evaluation of artistic text translation practices.

423 Alena Jaklová, Bohumila Junková (České Budějovice)
Humour in Czech newspaper commentaries at the beginning of a millennium

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The present paper deals with language humour in the commentary sections of Czech newspapers (Mladá fronta dnes, Lidové noviny, Právo). It ranges in form from amusing assessment of people, situations, and social phenomena to aggressive and offensive humour. Humour is treated in the paper as one of the possible forms of expressive assessment of reality. As it is not found universally in all commentaries, it can be considered as a marker of a journalist’s individual style.

429 Dorota Brzozowska (Opole)
The influence of American jokes on Polish ones

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Nowadays Poles are more familiar with American jokes than they used to be. American jokes either circulate in the original versions or are translated into Polish. Traditional Polish jokes have started to incorporate some foreign elements. The paper presents the influence of American jokes on Polish ones taking into account three main levels: the content (the subject of the jokes and the type of humor they present), the structure (the way the texts are built), and the language (the stylistic means used in jokes). The observable impact is different on different levels: it is more visible thematically than stylistically. The structure of jokes is changing in the slowest of ways. Polish jokes are a good source of information about wider phenomenon. They reflect the strong influence of American culture on Polish one and the growing importance of the English language in various spheres of life in Poland.

437 Guy Russell Torr (Kraków)
Осторожно, пропасть! – Чехов спустя 100 лет

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Настоящая статья представляет собой попытку рассмотреть феномен Чехова в переводах на английский язык, раскрыть причины довольно частой переводимости произведений данного писателя. На основе анализа нескольких английских переводов поднимается вопрос о том, где в данный момент живет Чехов, 100 лет после ухода его из жизни: в России или же в каком-то районе аглийской языковой территории. В работе затрагиваются вопросы ассимиляции, адаптации и согласованности в переводах.

Book Reviewsdownload article (2,44MB)

451 Alena Jaklová (České Budějovice)
Hubáček, Jaroslav. Výběrový slovník českých slangů. – Ostrava: Ostravská univerzita, Filozofická fakulta, 2003. – 250 s.

452 Tanja Pavlović (Belgrade)
Jovan Ajduković. Uvod u leksičku kontaktologiju. Teorija adaptacije rusizama, Foto Futura, Beograd 2004, 364 s.

455 Kornaev Murat (Kraków)
Marek Szałek, Słownik homonimów rosyjsko-polskich, Словарь русско-польских омонимов, Ars Nowa, Poznań 2003, 202 s.
Krzystof Kusal, Rosyjsko-polski słownik homonimów międzyjęzykowych, Русско-польский словарь межъязыковых омонимов, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2002, 190 s.

458 Tadeusz Szczerbowski (Kraków)
Язык и текст в пространстве культуры: Cборник статей научно-методического семинара «Textus». — Вып. 9. Под ред. д-ра филол. наук проф. К. Э. Штайн. — Санкт-Петербург – Ставрополь: Изд-во СГУ, 2003. — 416 с.

460 Iwona Papaj (Kraków)
Sztuka w świecie znaków, wybór, przekład, wstęp i bibliografia Bogusław Żyłko. Wyd. słowo/obraz terytoria, Gdańsk 2002, 290 s.

463 Michal Křístek (Brno)
Čechová, Marie et al. Současná česká stylistika.. – Praha : ISV nakladatelství 2003. 344 s.
ISBN 80–86642–00–3.

465 Svetlana Ćirković (Belgrade)
Drago Tešanović, Tvorbene kategorije i potkategorije u jeziku Branka Ćopića, Filozofski fakultet, Banjaluka 2003, 231 s.

468 Elżbieta Sierosławska (Kraków)
Tadeusz Szczerbowski, Kiriwina. Język wysp Trobrianda, Prace Monograficzne nr 336, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków 2002, 290 s.

471 Aleksandra Lončar (Niš)
Tatjana Paunović, Fonetika i/ili fonologija. Kritički prikaz fonoloških teorija 20. veka, Prosveta, Niš, 2003, 218 s.

473 Ljiljana Kostić (Užice)
Javorka Marinković i Vidan Nikolić, Oblici izražavanja i stilistika, Učiteljski fakultet, Vranje, 2003, 255 s.

476 Marzena Mukachowska (Opole)
Język religijny dawniej i dziś. Materiały z konferencji Gniezno 15–17 kwietnia 2002, red. Stanisław Mikołajczak i ks. Tomasz Węcławski, Poznań: Wydawnictwo „Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne”, 2004, 448 s.

476 Slađana Ilić (Belgrade)
Jovan Pejčić: Profil i dlan (Pojmovi/poimanja). – Beograd: Plato 2003. – 242 s.

480 Ružica Bajić (Belgrade)
Igor Burkhanov, Translation: Theoretical Prerequisites. – Rzeszów: Uniwersytet Rzeszówskie, 2003. – 222 s. – ISBN 83–7338–007–8

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