Style 2005


11 Maria P. Katiorova (Perm)
The stylistic school of Professor M. N. Kozina

download article (491KB)


The article dedicated to the jubilee of Margarita Nikolajevna Kozina (born on August 1st 1925) recounts the beginnings and 40-years’ development of the stylistic school of Perm. In the development of Prof. M. N. Kozina’s school we can distinguish four phases: 1) the first (in the sixties), when the fundamentals of functional stylistics were postulated; 2) the second (the phase of intensive development, in the 70–80’s) characterised by an expansion of the personnel base and publication of stylistics textbooks; 3) the third – extensive – in the 90’s, when broad scholarly cooperation began on the home and international planes; 4) the fourth phase – the beginning of the 21st century – marked as a period of synthesis of the results, confirmed by the publication of “The Stylistic Encyclopaedic Dictionary of the Russian Language” in 2003.
Finally, the thesis of the alleged crisis of functional stylistics in Perm is disproved, and it is demonstrated that it continues its fruitful development in the modern times.

21 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Contribution of Margarita Kozina and Perm Stylistic School to Development of Stylistics in Serbia

download article (559KB)


This paper is a contribution to the anniversary of the professor Margarita Kozina (born in 1925) the founder and prominent leader of the Perm Stylistic School. For the first time the contribution of the Perm School to the development of (functional) stylistics in Serbia has been recognized in the Serbian linguistics. It is stated that the Serbian reception of the Perm School representatives’ papers is more significant with home linguists dealing with the Russian language than with the ones dealing with the Serbian language.

31 Srdan Bogosavljević (Belgrade)
Gottsched’s critique of bombast

download article (1,29MB)


Gottsched’s critique of bombast (Schwulst) was initially provoked by the ongoing popularity of authors such as Lohenstein and Milton but it soon spread to all “mannеrists” whose “unnatural,” “unreasonable” style ran counter to his rationalist ideals. In his thirty-year-long campaign against bombast Gottsched employed a set of notions which - inherited from the ancient critical idiom and manifoldly mediated – had never been defined clearly. Amounting to a chronic confusion, this lack of conceptual and, consequently, classificatory precision culminated in Samuel Werefels’ influential “dissertation” on bombastic expressions in which Pseudo-Longinus’ hapax meteora was erroneously used to denote all classses and species of so-called “false sublimity.” Having taken over the term “meteora” as a synonym of “false sublimity,” Gottsched further aggravated the characteristic conceptional jumble by equating the meaning of these two terms with the meaning of the term “Schwulst” (despite at the same time recognizing the latter as the fifth kind of the second class of Werenfels’ “false sublimity”). With its denotational range thus expanded the category “Schwulst” furthermore assimilated most of the related catogories, such as “phantastic,” “infantine,” and “frigid” style. As is exemplified by many contemporary schemes of stylistic faults and by an almost interchangeable use, even in one sentence, of such expressions, this dubious expansion of meaning rendered all classificatory efforts more or less futile. Lending itself to various critical abuses, the catch-all “Schwulst” was from now on exploited as a magic formula for exorcizing every style which fell short of the vague yet extremely rigid standards of naturalness and reasonableness.

57 Branko Tošović (Graz)
Time in Art

download article (1,35MB)


Time can be represented in two ways: objectively (as in reality) and subjectively (as experienced individually). In literary works this second way is preferred, the way leading to creation of time in art. Every event displays a temporal succession (the beginning, duration, and end) which can never be altered in reality. However, in works of art the linear flow of time is disrupted so that what constitutes the end comes to the beginning, the present precedes the past or the past is presented as something happening right now. Sometimes an author sublimates an immense interval of several centuries into a very short period. An author can make time flow more slowly or faster, he can paint it as lasting incessantly or as intervals. A peculiar trick with time takes place in literary works: now one time plane emerges, now another, at one point a real meaning appears, and figurative ones at others, temporal forms are accumulated in some parts and completely omitted in others.
Different approaches produce different types of time in art. Some of them distinguish concrete time in art, general time in art, an art time abstraction, poetic transformations of time in art, others differentiate the author’s time and that of his characters, the third ones discriminate between the time of the story and the time of narration, whereas the fourth type indicates the existence of the readers’ time. Two terms for this are used in German scholarship – Erzählzeit and erzählte Zeit. The term Erzählzeit represents the real time of performing the action (of reading or narrating), whereas erzählte Zeit represents historical time, the time of the subject-matter, the time referred to. If Erzählzeit and erzählte Zeit correspond, the time in question is zeitdeckende Erzählen, which is especially typical of stage forms of narration. For identifying time in dramatic works we use two expressions – the time of performance (Erzählzeit) and the performing time (erzählte Zeit). On the level of literary genres, three primary kinds of time in art are distinguished – lyrical, prose and dramatic time.

85 Evgenij K. Tarlanov (Petrozavodsk)
The bell-ring phenomenon in Russian poetry stylistic interpretations’ context

download article (351KB)


The article considers the ring-bell motif interpretation problem both in Golden and Silver Age Russian poetry. It was based on carillon melody/rhythm-and-timbre opposition that actually presupposed West–East one as a highly significant of the artistic practice of Russian romanticism having a notable stylistic meaning at the same time.

91 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
The stylistic methods of paronymic joining of words in Serbian postmodernist poetry

download article (1,07MB)


In this article the author has tried to point out the general features of paronymy which has, as a complex lexical phenomenon, contributed to a great variety of theories on paronyms. In the introductory part of the article, through polemics with available literature, the author has stated his own view of the matter. The view is that the scope of paronymy should include all sound repetitions which take place within individual lexemes, and which begin at a deep level of sound repetitions, extending to under the level of homonyms. Therefore the main part of the article draws attention to the stylistic methods of paronymic joining of words, focussing research on mono-assonance, bi-assonance, polyalliteration, rhyme, paronomasia and play on words. It has been established by analysis that these figures are the primary stylistic figures realising paronymic joining of words in poetic discourse.

113 Maria Wojtak (Lublin)
Genologic curiosity – an editorial

download article (541KB)


An editorial commentary is a subject of the characterization. It is an independent journalistic genre. It is pretty odd because there is no one model. It is referring to the convention of the autonomous commentary that is the prototype form of the commentary, the newspaper announcement and the review under the structural, pragmatic and stylistic account. The shape of concrete statements is depending on the scope of the magazine and the invention of the author.

123 Goran Maksimović (Niš)
Scientific-Artistically Style by Petar Kočić

download article (444KB)


There are analysed texts by Petar Kočić in this essay: “Zmijanje”, “Ratkovo”, “Slike iz Stare Srbije i Macedonije”, with scientific-artistically style and personality modern literary prose at the beginning of 20th century with traveling devises, geographical studies and treatises with verbal national traditions and memories.

139 Svetlana E. Kuncevič (Minsk)
The functional-stylistic differentiation and linguistic modelling of military-political texts

download article (955KB)


The article “Functional-Stylistic Differentiation and Linguistic Modelling of Military-and-Political Texts” presents a linguistic approach to the content analysis of military-and-political discourse. The author touches upon the social specificity of the modern sphere of military-and-political communication, comments on the changes it has undergone since the collapse of the Soviet Union, singles out the main actors of the corresponding processes, briefly defining their basic roles. Apart from that, she classifies the texts functioning within the sphere of her scholarly interest in accordance with their type, character, genre and style.
Dwelling on the notion of contemporary war and the ways in which it is reflected in the press, the author centres round a thorough analysis and many-sided interpretation of the study by I. V. Zhukov devoted to the investigation into the same phenomenon but viewed from an interdisciplinary perspective.
Text content is understood by S. Eu. Kountsevitch as a complex multi-level structure, which embraces different types of text meaning including semantic, syntactical, pragmatic, and that of discourse. The underlying aim of the final stage of the research is to provide persuasive evidence that in the press there exists a specific sort of texts that can be referred to as military-and-political and, in principle, the number of its text models is calculable. In order to achieve this goal, the author has designed a special semantic tool which provides several sets of semantic functions and particular ways of operating them aimed at encoding, analysing and decoding content information. The notion of generalized semantic-syntactical text model might be an effective instrument in developing convincing arguments to support the hypothesis that genetically the text belongs to language and not to speech.
Structurally, the identified problems are explored in five parts of the paper entitled as follows:
1. The modern sphere of military-and-political communication.
2. Functional-stylistic varieties of military-and-political texts.
3. Considering linguistic objects through their modelling.
4. Investigations into the mass media “war” discourse.
5. Semantic-syntactical modelling of military-and-political texts.

149 Elena E. Samoilik (Minsk)
The stylistic potential of axiological attributes in political discourse

download article (465KB)


Considered in this paper are the problems of stylistic capacity of evaluative attributes in political discourse. The analysis of the attributive means used in political speech is based on the assumption that evaluation is the major feature of political discourse, with attributes presenting one of the most numerous devices to realize evaluative meanings. The cases of evaluative attributes studied are: 1) adjectives of various semantic groups; 2) possessive and demonstrative pronouns used in their attributive functions. The style-forming potential of these elements from the point of view of cluster and contextual analysis is revealed. When conditioned by certain pragmatic factors, some adjectives – although deprived of evaluative meaning as such – acquire evaluative connotations. Political speech becomes stylistically distinguishable owing to clichés formed with adjectives of the most numerous semantic groups. Possessive and demonstrative pronouns, their main grammatical functions redundant, often take on the meaning of evaluation.

157 Jana Hoffmanova (Praha)
Ein paar Wörter zu der poststrukturalistischen Stilistik

download article (485KB)


Die Verfasserin zeigt, wie oft der Begriff Struktur in der heutigen Stilistik und den verwandten Bereichen (wie Textlinguistik oder Konversationsanalyse) vorkommt; ihrer Meinung nach kann man sogar über die Inflation der Strukturen sprechen. Zum Unterschied davon behaupten einige Sprachwissenschaftler (z. B. J. Neustupný), dass Stilistik eine typische poststrukturalistische Wissenschaft ist: weil ihr Gegenstand nicht die Sprache, sondern das Sprechen ist (d. h. Sprache in den Texten, in der Kommunikation), und besonders die Variation, die Auswahl der sprachlichen Mitel aus verschiedenen Varianten. Der Beitrag stellt dann die (poststrukturalistische, oder postmodernistische) Situation der letzten Dekaden vor, wenn an die Stelle der Struktur manchmal der Spiel tritt. In dieser neuen Situation öffnet sich der Text dem Prozess der Kommunikation und dem Netz der anderen Texte; wichtig ist nicht mehr die Struktur, sondern die Strukturierung. Infolgedessen sollte die heutige Stilistik eine intertextuelle Stilistik werden, die sich vor allem mit dem Text, Diskurs, Dialog als Spiel und Netz befasst. Auch die Fachliteratur kann jetzt spielerische Natur haben; die Beispiele demonstrieren, wie eng die Rezension in einer Fachzeitschrift mit dem Operntext intertextuell verbunden ist.

167 Marina A. Vengranovič (Toljati)
The folklore text from the aspect of basic stylistic features

download article (956KB)


The article touches upon the problem of the stylistic peculiarities of the folklore text. The author considers this problem in the boundaries of the functional approach, which presupposes the study of any kind of text in the dialectal unity of two sides – textual and extralinguistic. According to this approach the author distinguishes a number of basic stylistic features, which determine linguistic peculiarities of the folklore text and take an intermediary position between extralinguistic sphere and linguistic proper; they demonstrate interrelations with the extralinguistic basis of the text and linguistic means expressing them. In this article the author focuses on the characteristics of two basic stylistic features of the folklore text – generalizing and traditional character – and their text realization. The author analyses linguistic forms of realizing the generalized character on different levels of the text (instability of semantics and paradigmatic character of the folklore word, two-component combinations, folklore formulas and syntactic units, expressing invariant semantics of generalized character). The author distinguishes traditional folklore semantics, constant epithet, folklore symbol, folklore formulas and fixed syntactic structures of different volume as specific linguistic forms of expressing traditional character of the text. In conclusion the author considers specific linguistic forms, based under the influence of extralinguistic factors and the main stylistic features, to form the literary speech system of a special kind, different from its written analogue – the language of literary fiction.

187 Bożena Witosz (Katowice)
On typological categories of the supergenre in the speech universes

download article (583KB)


The author of the article analyses the problem of the typology of speech genres. She claims that the traditional model of classification of literary genres, which introduces the hierarchical organisation of categories: type, genre and the concrete text, cannot be applied to the division of the entire textual reality. According to the author, the category of functional style (register) cannot be transferred to the supergenre level (type). The subordination of the genres to the appropriate style varieties is not of the inclusive character – genres often cross the style boundaries.
The author suggests using in the typology of speech genres, the principles of family similarity, which allows – according to Ludwig Wittgenstein’s thesis – to sort the genres into the appropriate classes (families) on the basis of partial similarity. This model regards the basic level, that is the level of genre, as the most distinctive. On the other hand, the family categories (superior ones) are created according to the chosen criterion, for example: thematic, functional, situational or subjective one, etc. Family categories are not of the closed, constant character. On the contrary, they are dynamic, flexible and open. The same genre may belong to several families, for example, literary reportage may belong to the family of travel genres, to the family of press genres and to the family of artistic genres.
The families classify the genres that are similar in one way or another and that simultaneously differ from one another. Emphasising both the similarities and the differences allows us to characterise even more precisely particular genres considered as autonomic structures, to define mutual relations, in which the speech forms of a given culture remain, to indicate every form’s place in the typological network.

199 Switlana Iwanenko (Kiew)
Экспрессивность и ее преломление в тональности текста

download article (392KB)


Статья представляет собой попытку обобщения представлений об экспрессивности как категории языка и текста. При этом отправной точкой рассмотрения является соотношение экспрессивности с другими категориями, а также между ее видами в тексте. Если в системе языка это соотношение представлено в основном пересечением и включением (субподчиненность), то в тексте оно выражено циклической прогрессией (принцип субподчиненности, т.е. включения видов експрессивности языковых единиц низшего уровня в более комплексные единицы). Экспрессивность преломляется в тексте в категории тональности, как категории І степени, и включает в себя все виды экспрессивности элементарных единиц по принципу циклической прогрессии.
Экспрессивность элементарных единиц зависит во многом от жанровой формы текста. Если жанровая форма литературных произведений имеет жесткую структуру, то ее влияние на экспрессивность отдельных элементов языка, употребленных в тексте, может носить системный характер. Примером может послужить народная сказка как строго структурированная закрытая система, одним из элементов которой являются постоянные эпитеты, демонстрирующие «парадигматику синтагматики» в тексте. Постоянные эпитеты экспрессивны, т.к. фикциональность сказки влияет на не экспрессивные логические эпитеты и превращает их в символы с качеством стертой метафоры.

207 Gabriel A. Osoba (Lagos)
Параллелизм как стилистическое средство передачи сообщения в библейском дискурсе: пример 1-го послания Святого Апостола Павла к Коринфянам, гл. 13

download article (591KB)


В работе представлен стилистический анализ материала одного фрагмента из Библии – 1. Коринфянам, гл. 13. Текст этот интересен способом употребления в нем параллельных структур, направленных на передачу сообщения о любви, точнее – милосердии. Настоящая статья представляет собой попытку вычленить, описать и обсудить те значимые параллельные конструкции, которые способствуют продолжительному воздействию сообщения. Для этих целей проводится анализ используемых схем простых и сложных предложений, а также субстантивных и глагольных словосочетаний с учетом их структуры и функции.

219 Michal Křístek (Brno)
Thematic built-up of fiction as a part of stylistic analysis

download article (539KB)


Composition of a text from the sphere of fiction was analyzed in this contribution, with the focus on changes within motifs used in the text. As a source material, a pentalogy by Karel Poláček (1892–1945), one of the foremost Czech writers of the 1930s, was used; the pentalogy itself originated in the 1930s and gives a depiction of life in a small Czech town before, during and after the World War I . As a source of analysis, items from three main goups of motifs were selected and their changes were observed throughout the text of the pentalogy. In accordance with a classification introduced by a Czech scholar Felix Vodička, the three main groups represent motifs from the spheres of 1) plot, 2) characters and 3) the world depicted in the novels. The analysis shows that variation in the pentalogy is always functional and motivated, which gives a proof of author’s capabilities to create an elaborate structure, offering thus a wide range of possibilities for further investigation.

229 Martin Schacherl (Vodňany)
Stylistic characterization of the position of congruent attribute in Julius Zeyer’s prose

download article (839KB)


The main aim of this article was to analyze selected features of style of novels by Julius Zeyer, including the basic biographical and bibliographical data concerning this author. The main topic investigated was the attribute in Zeyer’s prose. Since the extent of Zeyer’s prosaic works in considerable, first of all it was necessary to choose a specimen of investigated texts. For this purpose, three prosaic works were chosen which represent three stages of development of Zeyer’s prose. The approach to texts was meant to be as exact as possible – the article is focused on issues of word order, especially on the position of congruent attribute. In Zeyer’s prose, its post-position occurs quite frequently. Inversions of word order indicate very significantly aesthetic qualities of Zeyer’s texts and differences from neutral or colloquial language. Frequented post-positions of attributes which are not further developed is motivated especially by communicative factors. Attention was paid to various type of word order inversions – to non-developed congruent attributes in anteposition and post-position, as well as to separation of semantically linked words. This type of inversion occurs most frequently in the early stage of Zeyer’s work. The most frequently occurring and in fact the basic (unmarked) type of developed congruent attribute consists of two paratactic congruent attributes in front of the noun.

245 Ružica Bajić (Belgrade)
Emotion of penitence in liturgical-praying discourse

download article (838KB)


In this paper we are considered and classified modes of expressing the feelings of penitence in the liturgical-praying discourse of contemporary Serbian language. At the beginning, we gave the definition of penitence. It is, in fact, complex of different emotions, including, for example, sorrow and joy at the same time. What was taken into account is both lexical items used in expressing these emotions and syntactic and discourse structure of the statements and paragraphs possesing the notion of penitence. What was also analysed is the function of the related non-verbal elements in liturgical-praying discourses that represent our corpus, i.e. liturgy, being the most important orthodox religious service and other every-day and frequently pronounced prayers, translated by St. Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church.

261 Mirčeta Vemić (Belgrade)
Aesthetic code and logical code of a cartographic signs

download article (782KB)


The language of cartography is a sign language, therefore every mapping starts with coding cartographic signs which function as a genetic support to the reality existing between the two opposing requests for constituting and founding the meaning, by the way of their aesthetics and logic codes. This makes it generally possible for the language of cartography to be articulated and transmitted, primarily through visual images and subsequently as reflective contents.
The aesthetics code is an aesthetic relationship that coordinates the construction of cartographic signs with the ruling cultural and aesthetic criteria contemporary to the act of mapping. This functions in such a manner that from the perceptive-sensual (visual and kinetic) ideas about objects that are the subject of mapping, a constructive-artistic presentation is created with a balanced form of existence, as well as a from of action in a functional mode, pertaining not only to every single cartographic sing, but also to the cartographic key as a whole. Furthermore, from a subjective point of view, the aesthetics code is related to aesthetic needs, aesthetic taste and aesthetic sense of its author, the cartographer, which generates a feedback reaction effectuated as an aesthetic impression, aesthetic pleasure and esthetic delight of the reader or the user of the map.
The logic code consists of basic logical operations posed in an interactive system of relations which relies on immediate sensual notions that make an autonomous measure of semantics of individual cartographic signs. Departing from comparison, identification of and discrimination between separated sections, the logical meaning of cartographic signs is established, on one side by modeling (through analysis – synthesis) and by comprehension (through generalization – specialization) which confirms their logical scope while, on the other side, shaping (typization) and expressing (classification) determinate their logical context.
Cartographic textualization gives a full expression to the style and the purpose of cartographic signs in depicting the geographic-cartographic image of the world, since it is embedded in their aesthetics and logic codes.

273 Michal Oklot (Chicago)
Картина боли («прозрачная материя») у Гомбровича

download article (915KB)


Настоящая статья посвящена картинам боли в произведениях Витольда Гомбровича. Анализ картины боли как одного из центральных понятий творчества Гомбровича в целом дает возможность понять специфику его антиметафизики, противоборствующей дуалистической мысли Запада. Для того, чтобы сформировать более правильное представление о польской литературе, в кратких чертах представлена отдельная генеалогическая линия польских писателей, именуемых нами «материалисты-мистики». Геналогия эта ведется от Кароля Ижиковского через Гомбровича до Кристиана Скшипошека. Двух первых писателей роднит незаконченный литературно-творческий проект, посвященный «боли». Третьему из них – писателю несколько иного, кажется, масштаба по сравнению с Гомбровичем и Ижиковским – удается реализовать проект этот в своем романе «Мойра».

291 Larisa Razdobudko-Čović (Novi Sad)
Cultural adjustments in translation of Gorski vijenac (Mountain Wreath) by Njegos to russian linguistic structure of the world as a reflection on the historical and cultural specifications of a nation

download article (661KB)


This paper deals with cultural carecteristics of curses and oaths in ‘Gorski vijenac’, becouse they represent a special difficulty when translating it even to such a simillar language as Russian, thus to analise the cultural adjastments in the latest translation by A. Sumilov. In order to do this we first have to get acquanted with the contents and lexical – syntactic structure of the curses, which once was researched by Branislav Ostojic. To start such a research, one must get a thourghal insight into life and customs of the Montenegrians of the Njegos times.
The translator cannot take into a consideration all cultural characteristics at any time. Therefore one must choose the most prominent ones, which leads to cultural adjustments in the target language. The translation analyst must be familiar with the cultural characteristics of the folk curses, their content, and their linguistic structure, in order to interpret all the cultural adjustments in that very translation. The results of the research showed that the curses have specific lexical – syntactic structure, which is always the form of a conditional in the imperative mode (optative adjective) with vocative function. The analysts must always bear this in mind. Aspects like syntactic relation of the linguistic unites within the curse, its lexical structure, logical and semantic realization of its content, are irrelevant in this particular case, therefore omitted.
Njegos, obviously, knew Montenegrin curses very well, thus the wide topic-thematic range in ‘Gorski Vijenac’. The curse structure depends on the recipients, who are mostly humiliated and offended persons, very seldom, they were landlords. The curses are spoken by an individual, but also the collective. There are different kinds:
a) self curses – when a person curses him/herself
b) curses against the co-speaker
The recipients are various: the Turks, the Turkish Empire, the brothers, the magnates, even the bishop himself.
Only the distinctive features of a certain nation can explain the linguistic image of the world and also the behavior, which in turn leads to cultural adjustments. The language itself draws a curtain over the term, thus hiding the specifities of the nation. The shape of things makes the cultural adjustment necessary.
This research is based on two basic techniques of analyzing the cultural layers; contrastive analyses and cultural-historic comments.
The results showed that Serdar Vukota’s monologue contain a lot of curses and all of them use optative adjective and it represents a condense vivid expression of the speakers wish for the verb action to happen in the future, which is typical of modal verbs in general. Nevertheless, we noticed that the modality of the optative adjective is strengthened in combination with the vocative expression thus making a whole. All this applies to serdar Vukota’s monologue, which first ten lines were analyzed since there is a great concentration of curses.
If we compare the extract with the Sumilov’s translation, there is a difference in lexicalsemantic structure of the curses. First, the optative adjective was replaced with present perfect expressing future action, without the modal wish of the speaker (покарает Божий гнев ужасный; в голый камень обратит посевы и ребенка в материнском чреве) or 3rd person singular imperative (да родит он детей прокаженных). Second, the vocative addressing the Montenegrins was replaced with the expression brothers! (братья!). This change has brought about to the change of the recipient, as well as the loss of the modal wish, which in turn leads to the weakening of the original expression and affection. This concentrated affection has conditioned the organization of the curses according the pre-set concept. Also, the different alternatives for the optative adjective disturbed that organization, thus resulting in the loss of the expressiveness and affection. In the original, there is nothing redundant, and the structures are reduced to the syntactic minimum – the ellipse.
The contrastive analyses of the cultural elements of the original text and the translation, one can see that the source of the cultural adjustments are the curses and oaths. The conclusion is that the translator must get acquainted with the cultural background (national characteristics and customs of the Montenegrins) before starting the work. This is a must in order to take advantage of the denotative (situation) model in the theory of translation, which is based on the ‘national distinctive features that resulted from various climatic, historical, economic, social, political and other life conditions’. All of these features are expressed in a language. As a consequence of rich and entangled national features in Njegos’s work, the cultural adjustments in Sumilov’s translation are manifold, as you will se in this paper through the examples. Sumilov used reduction or emission to overcome the problem.
The results of the research showed two common adjustments: 1) Serbian and Montenegrin customs non-existing in Russian culture; 2) great variations within one particular custom. Often, the cultural adjustment happens where there is no alternative. Well-known connotations in the reality of a particular language are implicitly present in the minds of the speakers of the language, while different, or even absent in another language. This is the source of the misunderstanding the translation, especially if the reader is totally ignorant of the culture and history of the people.

303 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
“A Lesson of Creative Writing” and Michal Viewegh’s Quasipostmodernist Poetics

download article (598KB)


The present study deals with postmodernism and quasipostmodernism on the material of the novella A Lesson of Creative Writing (Lekce tvůrčího psaní, 2005) of the contemporary Czech prose writer Michal Viewegh on the background of his earlier pseudodetective novellas The Case of the Unfaithful Klara (Případ nevěrné Kláry, 2003) and The Pig-in-the-Middle (which is not the exact translation of the original Czech title Vybíjená, 2004) and in the context of similar types of literary creation reflecting the chaotic history (Ivan Goncharov).
The period of transformation in Viewegh’s prose works is considered a manifestation of radicalism, of the breach of mass literature and of the permanent impact of dilettantism and imitation. The demonic character of his vision of the world means in this case the conception of the artifact as playing with man’s deeds and fates. Viewegh’s “new men” use the language of mass media, advertising, apply various topical hints.
Viewegh overcomes the alienation and mental depression by materialist pragmatism, but also by typical Czech irony and self-irony. Especially in his latest novella A Lesson of Creative Writing he seeks a new stability in biedermeier scenery: literature is part of comfortable, cosy life; everything should come back to its own place, the initial part of the novella (prologue) is continued in its final passages (epilogue). In the end, the author tries to compare Viewegh’s sensibilility with that of the writer of Russian neoclassicist realism Ivan Goncharov.

315 Anna Ginter (Łódz)
Поэтическое значение – интерпретация и перевод

download article (726KB)


Настоящая статья представляет собой попытку анализа процесса интерпретации и перевода одного из стихотворений представителя молодого поколения поэтов – Михала Юзвяка. Текст с польского языка на русский переводили студенты четвертого курса русистики Лодзинского университета. В статье избранные проблемы интерпретации и перевода текста рассматриваются с точки зрения когнитивной лингвистики и поэтики в контексте результатов исследований выдающихся теоретиков когнитивной грамматики: Рональда Лангакера, Марка Тернера, Джайлса Факонера, Лайн Брандт и Пера Брандта.

329 Natalia V. Sluhai (Kiev)
The modern commercial advertisement in the Ukraine: sources, semantics, structure, response in the field of mass media

download article (737KB)


Modern mass media form a powerful flow of information, in which texts of outdoor advertisements play a significant part. Comparing and contrasting old pre-revolutionary advertising with modern advertising texts reveals the differences between the two. These differences are especially prominent on the linguistic and psycholinguistic levels of realizing the idea of the advertisement.
Characteristic of retro-advertising are: point-of-fact and detailed descriptions of the goods being advertised, which include geographical information on where the raw materials are produced, the location of the enterprise, delivery addresses and shop addresses; names of the company’s owner and co-owners, the company’s financial status. Retro-advertising is weakly structured as a text, the systems of tropes and verbal symbols are underdeveloped. Here, a neutral style making use of many bookish methods of expressing the idea of the advertisement, dominates. The devices used in advertising have a very faint emotional and expressive coloring and are not differentiated according to gender or age principles, they are not directed at a specific social group. Pre-revolutionary advertising is characterized by the dominating purpose of adequately presenting the idea advertised and by weak manipulative techniques, which are often indirect. This is confirmed by the traits derived by way of neuro-linguistic programming methods (by studying the range of psychological images of the world, the range of modalities as “models of sensual experience” and the niche of the advertised goods in the structure of the typical “buy-and-sell” frame).
What distinguishes modern advertising is the wide scope of language methods used for realizing the advertisement’s idea on different levels. Among these levels, the phonological, graphical, lexical and textual are addressed. The gamut of the methods involved in expressing the advertisement’s idea, being by far broader than that of the texts in prerevolutionary advertising, is distinguished by diversity and efficiency, which is strongly augmented through the use of myth-projecting methods. Myth projecting in the narrow sense of the word (involving the mythological resources of the language into expressing the advertisement’s idea) is being researched on the level of symbolic meaning of colors, numbers, of verbalizing metaphors and metonymies, semantics of the magical, of turning the object of advertising into a pseudo-symbol. Two types of myth-projecting technologies have been described on the basis of this store of methods. To the first type belong the discourse methods of instilling, which include the method of semantic concentration, the method of exerting pressure through several sense elements with a positive axiology, the method of indirect semantic influence, the method of exerting pressure through the positive image effect. To the second type belong the conceptual language methods including the method of making the image of the world into a chaos, the method of reaccentuation and distortion of archetypes. Analyzing modern advertising complements the overview of the whole spectrum of psychological world images, the spectrum of modalities as “models of sensual experience”, of the niche of the advertised goods in the structure of the typical “buy-and-sell” frame.

343 Violetta Machnicka (Siedlce)
Periphrastic Structures Connected with Death against a Background of Other Periphrastic Expressions in “Faraon” by Boleslaw Prus

download article (677KB)


The present article aims at classifying and describing selected periphrastic constructions that appear in Faraon by Boleslaw Prus, especially those related to the phenomenon of death. In the Introduction, the author presents some general information connected with the novel itself and its origins, as well as its plot. The novel by Aleksander Glowacki shows the mechanism of government in the ancient Egypt.
The article has been divided into six basic thematic units:
I Periphrasis – the attempt to define and divide periphrases according to different theoretical approaches.
II Semantic aspects of periphrastic structures in Faraon – most interesting and representative periphrastic structures appearing in the novel, gathered in eight thematic groups.
III The theme of death in Faraon – periphrases in translations of ancient texts – periphrases coming from the translations of old-Egyptian The Book of Deceased, used by Prus in his novel.
IV The other periphrases of “death” in narration and dialogues in Faraon – the role played by periphrases connected with death in narration and dialogues in the novel.
V Structure of the periphrastic constructions in Faraon – simple and complex periphrases – division of the observed periphrases referred to death into the groups of nouns, verbs and adverbs, as well as into short and complex ones.
VI Metaphorical and non-metaphorical periphrases – the attention is focused on the fact that not every periphrastic construction may be described as metaphorical, which has been proved by the examples provided from Faraon.
In the final part of the paper, the author emphasises that periphrastic constructions are the most characteristic feature of the style of Boleslaw Prus, which can be illustrated by the text of Faraon.

357 Ayşe Kiran (Ankara)
Дескриптивный подход к одной новелле М. Юрсенар

download article (796KB)


В настоящей статье при рассмотрении литературного описания мы в основном опираемся на пособия Введение в анализ описания Ф. Хамона и Дискурс и его предмет I–II Жан-Клода Коке. Описание – это не риторическая фигура и далеко не литературно-художественная конструкция, управляемая означающим и означаемым. Короче, в результате литературного описания смысл не трансформируется, а остается референциально определенным. Внешняя действительность сдвинута в абстрактный мир языка.

Определенной спецификой в новелле отличается классическое описание (экфразис). Это – место, в котором нередко сконцентрировано максимальное количество метафор, синегдох, сравнений, персонификаций. Кроме того, назначение описания фиксировать, блокировать и направлять внимание. При повествовании функцию описания берут на себя либо рассказчик-повествователь либо прозорливые персонажи (например, Линг), люди толковые, проницательные, знатоки, короче – наблюдатели типа Ванг-Фо, Линга и царя.

Всезнающий повествователь выбирает для себя не одну лишь роль наблюдателя, но и направляет читательское внимание на определенный уровень выражения, на лексику и фигуры речи. В литературном произведении описание является местом модализации и даже сверхмодализации.

При повествовании рассказчик может отвести роль повествователя своим персонажам, таким как Линг, который учится наблюдать, Ванг-Фо, который умеет наблюдать, изображать, предлагать, а также царь, который любит наблюдать и воспроизводить. Следовательно, различные особенности описания – это взгляд (видеть), слово (говорить) и способ, к которому прибегают рассказчик и/или его персонажи.

373 Elena Ničiporovič (Tver)
Культурый приоритет: информативная vs. фатическая речь

download article (921KB)


Контент-анализ русско-немецкой неформальной метакоммуникации показывает, что информативная и фатическая речь обладают разной культурной значимостью в немецкой и русской коммуникативных системах.
«Избыточность» vs. «Недостаточность» речевых действий инокультурных партнеров (как нарушения коммуникативных ожиданий) является производным этого системного различия.
В межкультурной коммуникации немецкая ценность «обмен информацией» вступает в комплементарное взаимодействие с русской ценностью «обмен ментальной энергией».
Предпочтения согласованных способов самовыражения и взаимодействия влияют на формирование ведущего коммуникативного макростиля – информативного или фатического. Ведущий макростиль, в свою очередь, в определенной степени влияет на формирование культурно специфических способов мышления и поведения.

391 Rajko Igić (Chicago)
Антон Павлович Чехов: врач, писатель и гуманист

download article (547KB)


В прошлом году (с 7 по 9 октября) в колледже Колби (г. Уотервилл, штат Мейн) был проведен фестиваль к столетнему юбилею памяти А. П. Чехова (The Chekhov Centenary Festival). Автор настоящей статьи выступил на однодневном круглом столе, организованном «Северноамериканским обществом чтителей Чехова», с докладом Could Chekhovian Humanism Help Us Today? В докладе этом, послужившем для написания настоящей статьи, рассматриваются вопросы отдельных персонажей «Трех сестер» (например, Чебуткин), подчеркивается значение факта о путешествии Чехова на Сахалин, затрагиваются отдельные аспекты темы «жизнь-смерть» в творчестве А. П. Чехова и Л. Н. Толстого.

Book Reviewsdownload article (1,31MB)

401 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
František Všetička: Možnosti Meleté. O kompoziční poetice české prózy desátých let 20. století. Votobia, Olomouc 2005, 300 s.

403 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
Roman Jakobson: Formalistická škola a dnešní literární věda ruská. Brno 1935. Editor Tomáš Glanc. Academia, Praha 2005, 321 s.

405 Vladimír Patráš – Lujza Urbancová (Banska Bistrica)
Findra, Ján: Štylistika slovenčiny/Stylistics of the Slovak Language. Martin: Vydavateľstvo Osveta, 2004. 232 s. ISBN 80–8063–142–5

409 Senka Ivošević (Beograd)
Unsal Ozunlu: Upotrebe jezika u književnosti, Multilingual, Istanbul 2001, 269 s.

412 Jovan Ajduković (Beograd)
Rudolf Filipović, Antica Menac: Engleski element u hrvatskome i ruskom jeziku, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2005, 77 s.

415 Raisa L. Smulakovskaia (Čerepovec)
Пермские межвузовские сборники научных трудов «Стереотипность и творчество в тексте»

420 Jovan Ajduković (Beograd)
Štefan Mihael Neverkla, Jezički kontakti: nemački јеzik – češki јеzik – slovački јеzik, Schriften über Sprachen und Texte 7, Frankfurt am Main/Wien: Peter Lang, 2004, 780 S. – ISBN 3–631– 51753–X

423 Bojana Milosavljević (Beograd)
Mirjana Kovačević, Hrvatsko-srpski rječnik razlika, Besjeda, Banja Luka, Ars Libri, Beograd, 2004, str. 174.

Anniversariesdownload article (437KB)


Current Issuesdownload article (388KB)


Notes on Contributors


Instruction to Authors


To the TOP

Style presented here by courtesy of Project Rastko,
Internet library of Serbian Culture