11 Валерия Е. Чернявская (Санкт-Петербург)
The article is an attempt of consistent analysis of the category of openness as materialized on the level of text and discourse. The phenomenon of openness reveals itself in the form of intertextuality and interdiscoursivity. The author continues her analysis of these categories in juxtaposition, allowing to see the common and differentiating features in them.
27 Michal Křístek (Brno)
The article focuses on the first modern Czech textbook of stylistics – Slovesnost (Verbal Art) by Josef Jungmann – with regard to various aspects of time relating to this work, on the theoretical basis of stylistics whose origins are rooted in functional structuralism of the Prague School and developed further on. Attention is paid mainly 1) to the time this book originated (the first edition was published in 1820, the second and third editions in 1845 and 1846, respectively), including considerable changes in the Czech society that took place between the editions, 2) to the impact Slovesnost had on other works from this field and 3) to its characterization using the present-day stylistic terminology.
33 Mария П. Котюрова (Пермь)
The process of editing scientific discourse is explained in terms of trans-disciplinary positions – linguistic, epistemic, logical and psychological forming in their complexity a
systemic approach to the technology of editing.
51 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Prescription or so called prescriptive style represents a crucial feature of the Serbian language scientific-professional literature, typical of the early phases of the creation of scientific style for specific purposes.
63 Jolanta Nocoń (Opole)
The article deals with the description of the issue of change in the style of one of didactical genres – schoolbook. Style is interpreted here as a genre component of the
text – determined by its structure, pragmatics and by the choice of linguistic means. Two
fragments of marginally different texts of informative function from two handbooks were
analysed. This was the basis to set out the scope of paradoxes (diametrically different style
features) characteristic for modern school handbooks.
77 Irena Szczepankowska (Białymstok)
The paper refers to the statements in Polish which implement legislative speech acts, beginning from the first codifications, dating back to mid-XV century, to present-day
89 Юлия С. Паули (Кемерово)
The article is devoted to the basics of the language-creative description of the individual style of linguistic personality. Individual style defined as an advanced creative manner
of representation of the meanings, which are actual for the author. System qualities of
the author’s native language and their individual manifestation regarded as the main
conditions of the peculiarities of the author’s style.
101 Ирина П. Кудреватых (Минск)
Grammar and stylistic means of expressing modality are analyzed on the level of distant organized information blocks; modality in a literary text is used as a speech form of its semantic, syntactic and stylistic structure. By using as example poetic and prosaic texts, the conditions of subjective modal meanings are determined, at that, their number in prose and poetry is different and determined by the communicative functions of language structures.
115 Elena Bonta, Liviu Druguş (Bacău)
The aim of this article is to present some of the major aspects of style characteristic for the political discourse, as interpreted from an original perspective: EMMY. This is a new vision on the human being, starting from the fact that each of us has rational/emotional ends that could be fulfilled using certain mean and is permanently adequating (fitting, matching)
ends to means and means to ends.
139 Татьяна Б. Карпова (Пермь)
The penetration of web-technologies into politics has became a factor of political communication in modern Russia. Nowadays, to win in the struggle for power, without
having access to electronic carriers, is practically impossible. Here the specific weight of
virtual information component in Russian politics has a stable trend to increasing.
153 Ольга А. Прохватилова (Волгоград)
The orthodox prayer is regarded in the article as belonging to one among kernel genres of the religious style; we consider it to be a text type representing prototypical language
features of the style and content.
167 Ирина B. Бугаева (Москва)
The purpose of the article is to give a description of communicative and pragmatic functions of address and characterization of vocative’s lexical-grammatical features in
179 Ксенија Кончаревић (Београд)
Im Aufsatz werden die Besonderheiten der Metastruktur des liturgishen Diskurses im Bereich der prosodischen Gestaltung des sakralen Textes erörtert, die nach den frei aufgenommenen, aber obligatorischen, aus Bedürfnis nach ihrer ausdrücklischen abgeleiteten Differenzierung vom jeweiligen profanen Diskurs realisiert wird. Diese Problematik wird auf dem Beleg der sakralen Sprachen nicht nur der Pax Slavia Orthodoxa – vor allem des Kirchenslawishen – sondern auch der modernen slawischen Standardsprachen im liturgischen Gebrauch erforscht. Es werden die folgenden drei Grundtypen der sprachlichen Interpretation, bzw. der Rhythmus-Intonations-Gestaltung von sakralen Texten analysiert: (a) Psalmodie, (b) Ekphonetik und (c) Melismatik analysiert. Es ist festgestellt, dass die Grundparameter der Umgestaltung der Metastruktur des liturgischen Diskurses universaler Natur sind, bzw. dass die konstitutiven und regulativen Prinzipien der Gestaltung des sakralen Textes einen übernationalen Charakter tragen; ebenfalls wird aber auch auf die Besonderheiten der Gestaltung der Metastruktur des liturgichen Diskurses in verschiedenen slawischen Milieus hingewiesen.
191 Валентина П. Мусиенко (Черкассы)
The article studies the question of the interaction between intensity of action semantics and stylistic characteristics in the verb structure concerning denotative and connotative
meanings interaction. The corpus of Russian verbs was formed from the Russian
dictionary in 4 volumes (Moscow, 1981–1984) as the result of compact selection by multistage
identification. The amount of intensively marked verbs equals to 4500 units. The
tendency towards mutual determination of ontological intensity and stylistic lowering is
stated. Firstly, 63% of lexico-semantic variants with intensity meaning are characterized
by conversational or low colloquial colouring and only a small quantity of them is marked
by the bookish style. Secondly, the modification of meaning towards its strengthening
by affixation or by the meaning transfer is accompanied by the lowering of the stylistic
203 Marie Čechová (Praha)
The author begins this article with the presentation of the main factors of the stylistic units of phraseology (relativity, component dependence, vividness, limited collocation) and shows their influence on the stylistic character of idiomatic expressions placed to the right and to the left from the neutral point of the axis. As a result the author determines the location of archaisms on the one side of the axis, and jargon expressions on the other. The disquisition presented in the article is very well illustrated with examples taken from the Czech language.
209 Бојана Милосављевић (Београд)
This paper deals with identification and description of various forms of excuses in formal and informal communication. This speech act is first defined on the semantic-pragmatic level following Searle’s constitutive rules, and then forms of excuses are described on the lexical-syntactic level. It has been established by analysis that the most frequent form of excuses in Serbian language is imperative form izvini(te) and also it has been established that the speech act of excuses has and phatic communicative function.
223 Emilia Plăcintar (Cluj)
This paper explores the similarities between ordinary conversation and intimate letters, with focus on the devices used in the epistolary form to imitate the ideal oral model by
compensating for the temporal and spatial distance between the correspondents.
233 Вероника В. Ганечко (Черкассы)
The article deals with the semantic, functional and stylistic aspects of a paralinguistic action nomination in fiction literature. The author describes the peculiarities of a correlation between remarks that contain a verb denoting a paralinguistic action of smile and different types of speech acts in the Russian, Ukrainian, German and English languages. The description of a smile is used mostly with the purpose to reflect the character’s attitude to the object of speech and to the whole communicative situation. The author comes to the conclusion that the verbs of smile correlate with various types of speech acts – expressive, comissive, declarative, representative and directive, and modify illocution of the utterance. Hence the action of smiling has many different functions in speech that are related to interpersonal interaction regulation.
247 Bohumila Junková (České Budějovice)
Статья посвящена некоторым возможностям использования конкурирующих языковых средств в печатной чешской публицистике. Речь идёт об обширной проблематике, поэтому мы остановились лишь на лексическом уровне языка. Выбором подходящих средств из конкурирующего множества публицист реализует свой коммуникативный замысел по отношению к персвазивной функции публицистики. Это касается конкурентов эксплицитных и имплицитных, конкуренции между средствами на разных уровнях когерентности, выражения генерализирующего и специфицирующего, конкурентов абстрактных и конкретизирующих, автоматизированных и актуализированных, нейтрально окрашенных и экспрессивных. Языковой материал мы черпали из ежедневных чешских газет «Млада фронта ДНЭС», «Право», «Лидовэ новины».
255 Daniela Slančová (Prešov)
The main aim of the article is to compare stylistics of the long-time best sold Slovak and Czech tabloid newspapers Nový čas and Blesk. The media communicative components concerning both papers are very similar: they have been published from 1992 by the same publisher (Swiss company Ringier), focused on the same kind of readers, having the same structure with similar sections based on special kind of tabloid news. The hypothesis based on empirical knowledge is that the style of both tabloids is very similar, however, the style of the Czech tabloid Blesk is more tabloid-like with higher rate of negative connotation and negative expressiveness and the slight general tendency toward lower style. The hypothesis has been proved by the analysis of headline stylistics (headlines and words with negative connotation, lexical expressiveness, foreign words in headlines, punctuation); predicates accompanying quoted parts of the news, and by stylistic comparison of the articles dealing with the same topic. The analysis has proved the common stylistic qualities of both tabloids with stronger stylistic tendencies towards tabloid stylistics in the Czech daily newspaper Blesk.
273 Стефана Димитрова (София)
The subject of this paper is one of the contemporary sociolekts of the current bulgarian language, i.e., the army-sociolekt. The author treats this sociolekt as a sum of the individual idiolekts of different people bearing a relation to the army. For this purpose are analysed various texts published in the newspaper “Bulgarian army”.
285 Лидија Тантуровска (Скопје)
The aim of this paper is to present verbal communication between sales people and customers, more precisely, the first act of communication between them and the manner in which they address each other. In order to carry out this research, customers were recorded secretly (with the consent and help of the sales people), and in another experiment, dialogues were recorded with neither party aware that they were being recorded. Th rough formal analysis of linguistic forms and the manner of communication, formal and informal relations between are demonstrated.
293 Elena Croitoru (Galaţi)
The meanings of words depend on the way they pattern into pharses and sentences and how they are used in situational contexts, the development of a theory of meaning being the central programme of ‘corpus semantics’.
303 Галина Б. Бендетович (Минск)
Le phénomène de l’interprétation ambigue de l’acception du mot polysémique est lié, d’une part, à l’influence des type différents du contexte, notamment, micro-, macro-,
mégacontexte. La réalisation simultanée des acceptions différentes a lieu grâce à
l’interaction des variantes lexico-sémantiques d’un mot. Le cumul apparaît comme
résultat de l’action réciproque complexe des acceptions lexicographiques et contextuelles.
Cela amène à l’augmentation informatique du mot dans le contexte, où le degré de
l’indétermination est haut. L’hypersémantisation – l’information supplémentaire appliquée
à l’acception essetielle – permet à celle-ci de prendre une nouvelle ampleur. Le phénomène
de l’ambiguité de l’unité lexicale non seulement dans le système de la langue, mais aussi
dans la parole amène aux processus différents contestant la thèse de modification du statut
sémantique d’un mot sous l’influance de la pragmatique.
316 Alexandra Šípová (České Budějovice)
Czech-American periodicals are one of the greatest sources of American Czech, a variety of Czech developing under the American English influence. The article focuses on some of the most remarkable phenomena of the syntactic plan of the Czech texts in these periodicals that may be motivated by English. The most apparent of these phenomena are calques of English prepositional phrases and whole syntactic structures. Further on, in the texts it is very often possible to detect many deviations in word order where a Czech sentence copies the word order pattern of an English sentence which is far more fixed. Amongst other noteworthy English-motivated structures that can be observed in the analysed periodicals are verbonominal predications of the verbs have and get, verbal nouns and adjectives, and also transgressives as the results of more frequent English nominal constructions. Finally, the article compares the extent to which each Czech- American periodical is affected with American English, and tries to suggest the reasons for the process of americanization at the syntactic level.
In this paper the author deals with the distributive rhyme schemes in Serbian folk lyric poetry. Generally speaking, rhyme can occur in three different structures within verse forms: 1) vertical, 2) horizontal, and 3) vertical-horizontal. For the purpose of discovering its systematic quality in verse structures, it is best to observe rhyme in the three basic structural positions: (a) the beginning of a line, (b) the position of caesura and (c) the position of clausula. Of course, rhyme can also exist, and it often does, in other positions within a verse, inside the first or the second half-verse. Applying this knowledge, the author has found and analyzed the following types of rhyme in the selected material – clausular, which occurs in six different schemes: (1) absolute rhyme, (2) elliptic rhyme, (3) alternating rhyme, (4) intermittent rhyme, (5) partial rhyme and (6) sudden rhyme; – anaphoric rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; – medial rhyme, which also occurs in a number of different forms; – ring rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; – leonine rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; The author has demonstrated that when we are considering a broader context: (a) a larger part of a poem or (b) the whole poem – these rhyme schemes often correlate between themselves and they function together complementing one another. By this the author has finally showed that rhyme is constantly present in this type of Serbian folklore, as well as that there is a highly developed repertoire of different rhyme schemes which are preconditioned by different positions within a verse or poem.
335 Алма Ћишић (Тузла)
The research subject of this paper are the qualitative rhyme schemes in Bosnian and Herzegovian poetry in the period between 1878. and 1918. Although the literature of the above mentioned period represents a continuous stage in the development of Bosnian and Herzegovian literature, which is confirmed by its undeniable literary and aesthetic values, as far as we know, no one so far has dealt with questions concerning rhyme. The poetry of Bosnian and Herzegovian poets created in the period between 1878 and 1918 according to its content-related (thematic and motif) elements belongs mostly to Romanticism, while a smaller part is also associated with Modernism. One should mention here that only the poetic opus of J. Dučić is more inclined towards Modernism than towards Romanticism. At the expression level (the poetic form, type of verse and rhyme schemes) this poetry is much closer to Modernism than Romanticism, because when a type of poem is concerned, the number of sonnet forms is evident. The lines are mostly rhymed classical decameters, hendecameters and dodecameters, which is a characteristic of Modernism rather than Romanticism. Rhyme with its phonetic structure (mostly with its quality) demonstrates, except in the poetry of O. Djikić, that it was mostly formed according to the principles of canonized rhyme. The analyzed poetry although created by poets belonging to three different nationalities: Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian – does not in any sense, and particularly in the sense of rhyming techniques, express polarity according to religion or nationality. The language in which it was written points to a unique language structure with smaller differences only at the lexical level. Using the terminology of M. Ž. Čarkić, we have found that there are four qualitative rhyme schemes functioning in the analyzed poetry: isomorphic, epenthetic, metathetic and metathetic-epenthetic. However, they are employed in various degrees: isomorphic 86.10%, epenthetic 12.37%, metahetic 0.15% and metathetic-epenthetic 0.78%.
347 Elżbieta Sierosławska (Kraków)
Der Artikel handelt von einem die Beziehungen zwischen dem sprachlichen und musikalischen Text betreffenden Aspekt, nämlich vom Akzent. Hierfür diente als Untersuchungsmaterial die Isella-Arie aus der Oper Die Verschworenen von Franz Schubert und die polnische Version von Ryszard Karczykowski. Es wurden der sprachliche, der Wortakzent im Deutschen und der musikalische Akzent kurz dargestellt, sowie ihr Einfluss aufeinander. Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass in einer Opernarie der musikalische und der Wortakzent übereinstimmen müssen, sowohl im Original als auch im Translat. Sonst kann der Text, der sprachliche Text für den Zuhörer unverständlich sein.
353 Sabina Giergiel (Opole)
The text named Prison civilisation or the world upside down presents a book by Borislav Pekic called Godine koje su pojeli skakavci. This work touches directly writer’s personal experience of imprisonment. Borislav Pekic, playing a role of peculiar prison community researcher, proves that this kind of sphere has the features that make it similar to the ancient cultures. There is a kind of law in prison worked out by the convicts, consisting of characteristic system of rules and rites, a peculiar prison code, as well as of mythology being the pure foundation of prison civilisation and represented by: a myth of innocence, a myth of woman, and a myth of freedom. An imprisoned man functions not so much as an individual, but is rather perceived as a member of specific group (we need to add that Pekic calls his prison cell a family cell) for which he takes responsibility and on which he depends. Thus there is no freedom of the individual sense, everything is common, the decisions are taken collectively, there is no purely individual responsibility. All these features of prison civilisation mentioned remain in clear opposition to the principles that rule a free world. Because prison civilisation is “different”. “Different” are the rules of conduct, moral code, judgement and guilt. Everything here is relative: relatively good, relatively short or safe. In prison lies are means of fight with the system, but they are also fundamental means enabling to survive. However – paradoxically – the reality of free man, functioning within the oppressive system (in this case a communist one), is also ruled by lies. The omnipresent mechanism of control and intimidation demands the average society member to hide they own beliefs and to exist in the state of permanent pretending. Moreover, in the work analysed, there is a clear division presented, based on the places’ opposition of the adapted/safe and the alienated/dangerous. And so the condemned himself starting from the judgement, and then by being put to penitentiary and by prolonging time of imprisonment, goes through successive inner circles representing the next stages of initiation.
365 Barbara Stawarz (Kraków)
The article presents the functioning of the genre of idyll in contemporary poetry, using the example of Joseph Brodsky’s work.
377 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
The author takes in consideration work of the Czech literary scholar Drahomír Šajtar (born 1922) in general and of one of his latest books in Russian literature in particular evaluates his method, defining it as a personalist one due to Šajtar’s Prague teacher Václav Černý. The book called The Black Swans depicts the life and psychology as well as political circumstances and poetics and style of the leading figures of the 20th century Russian literature, especially the authors of the so-called South-Western school (V. Katayev, E. Bagricky, I. Ilf, E. Petrov and others). Šajtar’s essayism, intuitivism and comparative vision combined with “close reading” and deep interest in poetics, style and genre of literary artifact form an original methodological cluster sensitive to the most prolific approaches to 20th century literature as such.
383 Reinhard Ibler (Giessen)
Zu den wichtigsten Impulsgebern der frühen tschechischen Balladendichtung gehörte Gottfried August Bürger (1747–1797), der nicht nur wegen seiner berühmten Lenore zu den herausragenden europäischen Balladendichtern zählt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Übersetzungen bzw. Nachdichtungen Bürgerscher Balladen untersucht, die im ersten der von Antonín Jaroslav Puchmajer seit 1795 herausgegebenen „Almanache“ enthalten sind, einem der bedeutendsten Publikationsforen für die frühen Vertreter der tschechischen Wiedergeburtsliteratur. Konkret geht es um Prokop Šedivýs Ballade Ukrutný myslivec, die auf Bürgers Der wilde Jäger beruht, sowie um Puchmajers Nachdichtung von Bürgers Der Kaiser und der Abt, die den Titel Jiří král a Vaněk Všeboj trägt. Außerdem wird kurz gezeigt, inwieweit Vojtěch Nejedlýs Lenka mit Bürgers Lenore zusammenhängt. Nicht zuletzt auf der Grundlage kurzer Textvergleiche soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Funktion diese frühen Balladenübersetzungen im Hinblick auf die weitere Entwicklung der tschechischen Ballade erfüllten.
393 Goran Maksimović (Niš)
In this essay there were analized two related itinerary texts about Boka Kotorska by Lazar Tomanovic, Bay of Kotor (1868), and Simo Matavulj, Boka and the people from Boka (1893). The point in this essay were on authentical itinerary adventures and pictures of Boka Kotorska, on Boka’s ethnopsychology and national character. Also the point were at ethnographics, folklor and languages particulary on this extent, also on historical, geographical and economical studies which showed very reliable past time and current reality Boka Kotorska in the second half of 19th century.
409Krzysztof Trochimiuk (Kraków)
The aim of this analysis is to reveal instruments used to communicate anger in Lalka [The Doll] by Bolesław Prus. The author understands that a text, as a tool of communication, cannot have at its disposal body language, intonation, or prosodic features; thus may lack clear boundaries clarifying a relatively imprecise expressive message. Nevertheless
it is claimed that the textual form cannot be denied its potential to express emotions
in a variety of ways guaranteeing a relatively successful communication of the rather
elusive concept of anger. Linguistic changes that have occurred since the time when the
text was published, were also taken into account. The present work helps understand the
meaning of a number of words that have ceased to be used but are expressive in nature and
communicate anger in the analyzed text.
Book Reviews • download all reviews (1,16MB)
421 Krzysztof Trochimiuk (Kraków)
423 Barbara Stawarz (Kraków)
426 Tadeusz Borucki (Kraków)
428 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
431 М. А. Ширинкина (Пермь)
441 Павел А. Катышев,
Станислав В. Оленев (Кемерово)
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445 Татјана Анђелковић (Ниш)
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449 Милоје М. Ракочевић (Београд)