Style 2007


11 Валерия Е. Чернявская (Санкт-Петербург)
Open text and open discourse: intertextuality – discoursivity – interdiscoursivity
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The article is an attempt of consistent analysis of the category of openness as materialized on the level of text and discourse. The phenomenon of openness reveals itself in the form of intertextuality and interdiscoursivity. The author continues her analysis of these categories in juxtaposition, allowing to see the common and differentiating features in them.

27 Michal Křístek (Brno)
Theoretical basis of Czech stylistics in the course of time: Slovesnost (Verbal Art) by Josef Jungmann
and the present-day situation

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The article focuses on the first modern Czech textbook of stylistics – Slovesnost (Verbal Art) by Josef Jungmann – with regard to various aspects of time relating to this work, on the theoretical basis of stylistics whose origins are rooted in functional structuralism of the Prague School and developed further on. Attention is paid mainly 1) to the time this book originated (the first edition was published in 1820, the second and third editions in 1845 and 1846, respectively), including considerable changes in the Czech society that took place between the editions, 2) to the impact Slovesnost had on other works from this field and 3) to its characterization using the present-day stylistic terminology.

33 Mария П. Котюрова (Пермь)
Explanatory Approach to Editing Scientific Discourse

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The process of editing scientific discourse is explained in terms of trans-disciplinary positions – linguistic, epistemic, logical and psychological forming in their complexity a systemic approach to the technology of editing.
The systemic approach is realized by means of minimized flexible, dynamic mental model of the text. The model of a standard text is a total combination of such features as: monolithic – divisible character, logicality – associativity, cohesion – intermittance, integrity – compositivity and others.

51 Andrej Stojanović (Belgrade)
Prescriptive style of Serbian language scientific literature of 18th century

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Prescription or so called prescriptive style represents a crucial feature of the Serbian language scientific-professional literature, typical of the early phases of the creation of scientific style for specific purposes.
A practical analysis shows that a prescriptive modus and familiarizing represent the most distinctive stylistic phenomena of the prescriptive style of the Serbian language scientific-pedagogic texts of the 18th century.

63 Jolanta Nocoń (Opole)
Paradoxes in the style of the schoolbook

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The article deals with the description of the issue of change in the style of one of didactical genres – schoolbook. Style is interpreted here as a genre component of the text – determined by its structure, pragmatics and by the choice of linguistic means. Two fragments of marginally different texts of informative function from two handbooks were analysed. This was the basis to set out the scope of paradoxes (diametrically different style features) characteristic for modern school handbooks.
It was observed that different ways of getting to the pupil by means of the text in a schoolbook, are achieved either by orienting the didactic message on the object (i.e. what is to be learned by the pupil) or on the subject (i.e. person who is to learn, namely on the pupil). In the first case, the style of didactic text is close to the scientific style. In the second case the style is more of colloquial. The scope of style paradoxes spans form abstractive, factual, objective, emotionally neutral, concrete, imagery, subjective, emotional and colloquial.
Admitted curricular model of the organisation of the language-style layer of schoolbook is aiming at presenting knowledge in a scientific or scientific-like manner of transmission of knowledge. The main reason of transformation of the style pattern is caused by changes that occur in the didactic context (applied concepts and models of education) and cultural context.

77 Irena Szczepankowska (Białymstok)
Legislative speech act – the stylistic convention of statements in Polish

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The paper refers to the statements in Polish which implement legislative speech acts, beginning from the first codifications, dating back to mid-XV century, to present-day statutes.
The author proves that the textual pattern of a legislative text assumed its shape in the Old Polish Period under the influence of the structure of court verdicts, expressed orally, and afterwards it underwent transformations (in a collection published in writing – the so-called ortyl in Polish, Urteil in German). The omission of performative phrase, which expressed an act of legislation at the single statement level, is explained by the intention to abridge the text, while the title of the whole collection (for example: Law, Statute, Codex) determines the legislator’s communicative intention and, at the same time, the genre of the performed speech act. The author of this article also proves that the elimination, in present legislative acts, of verbs such as: nakazywać (to order), zabraniać (to forbid), pozwalać (to permit) etc., is the result of democratization of social relations that leads to blurring differences between legislators and other subjects of law, as well as the force and the constancy of law becoming independent of a person’s guarantee that always functions in a specific time and space.
The paper also emphasizes the two turning-points in the evolution of lexical and syntactic shape of the Polish legislative texts: at the end of XVI century, when the influence of Latin rhetoric syntax became visible and many Latin terms were incorporated into legal terminology, and the last three decades of XVIII century, when the macaronic style was eliminated and the new style began to be formed in compliance with principles of logic, clarity and conciseness.

89 Юлия С. Паули (Кемерово)
Language-creative description of the individual style of N. A. Berd’aev
(upon a material of philosophical work Meaning of creation. An essay on justification of human)

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The article is devoted to the basics of the language-creative description of the individual style of linguistic personality. Individual style defined as an advanced creative manner of representation of the meanings, which are actual for the author. System qualities of the author’s native language and their individual manifestation regarded as the main conditions of the peculiarities of the author’s style.
Language-creative research of the individual style of N. A. Berd’aev’s reconstructs anaphonic organization of philosopher’s discourse. His general idea is represented in discourse by image, organized by modifications of word-building form tvorches/tvo : tvor/chestvo: tvorch/estvo. Dominant way of its concretization is a base anaphony – phonographic reproduction of the base of word tvorchestvo. Dominant position of base anaphony (anaphonic analogy) depends on system qualities of Russian language, but the individual style of N. A. Berd’ayev particularly demonstrates its powerful development and style-formative abilities.

101 Ирина П. Кудреватых (Минск)
Modality as a semantic code of a fiction text

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Grammar and stylistic means of expressing modality are analyzed on the level of distant organized information blocks; modality in a literary text is used as a speech form of its semantic, syntactic and stylistic structure. By using as example poetic and prosaic texts, the conditions of subjective modal meanings are determined, at that, their number in prose and poetry is different and determined by the communicative functions of language structures.

115 Elena Bonta, Liviu Druguş (Bacău)
The EMMY Style and the Management of the Political Discourse
in Socio-Human Interactions and Transactions

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The aim of this article is to present some of the major aspects of style characteristic for the political discourse, as interpreted from an original perspective: EMMY. This is a new vision on the human being, starting from the fact that each of us has rational/emotional ends that could be fulfilled using certain mean and is permanently adequating (fitting, matching) ends to means and means to ends.
We start from two premises concerning the political discourse: it is a particular type of communication in terms of participants, objectives and strategies to be used; its analysis has to take in view both the political, economic and ethical dimension.
From a pragmatic point of view, the political discourse is understood not only as a form of action upon the others but also as a form of interaction/transaction with the others/the people/the audience. Th rough the discourse, politicians try to attain ends for themselves and for the others: satisfying the people’s needs/objectives, establishing the social order, giving a sense to the socio-political events, maintaining/chaniging them, bulding/shaping identity and gaining a certain position within the political background. From the point of view of cohesion and coherence, this type of discourse is based on a set of very well organized structures obeying a logical order.
The paper offers a theoretical presentation of the problem under discussion followed by an analysis of texts (speeches of George Bush delivered during the election campaign in 2004), in an attempt of disclosing the management of the political discourse and the influence it has upon the audience, due to the style it adopts.

139 Татьяна Б. Карпова (Пермь)
Political discourse in Russian-speaking Internet

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The penetration of web-technologies into politics has became a factor of political communication in modern Russia. Nowadays, to win in the struggle for power, without having access to electronic carriers, is practically impossible. Here the specific weight of virtual information component in Russian politics has a stable trend to increasing.
The analysis of political discourse in Russian-speaking internet (runet) shows that the information channel (global computer network) does not change the purpose and functional-stylistic status of political communication, but brings additional opportunities into it. Communicational strategies of political parties, movements and their leaders are well followed through content filling of internet resources, and the force of impact to users depends on professionality of fulfillment of web-sites and the availability of interactive tools. It can be followed at first on the examples of main genre forms of political discourse in the runet: online conferences and personal sites. The article analyses the web-sites of such well-known Russian politicians as V. V. Putin, Y. M. Luzhkov, I. Khakamada, B. Nemtsov, A. Chubais. The analysis is carried out from the point of view of realization of communicative strategies and tactics of the said politicians. Within the frames of some personal sites of politicians there are such genre forms of the internet as forums, conferences, polls, when the author of the site gives a certain topic and all the willing people have the opportunity to take part in its discussion. As an example, the site of S. Y. Glaziev is given, as well as his official forum. Another genre form of political discourse is also demonstrated, as press centre (for instance, at the official site of LDPR whose leader – V. V. Zhirinovsky, without having his personal site, participates actively in operation of the site of his party).
Today, the representation of a party in the net is already an integral part of communication of politicians with their electorate. Practically every party has here its own resource. The main function of global network in the activity of modern political organizations is in providing a constant publicity and political discourse with possibility of electronic feedback between political elite and civil Russian society.
The article also analyses the network mass-media as an important part of political discourse in the runet.

153 Ольга А. Прохватилова (Волгоград)
Orthodox prayer as one of kernel genres of religious style

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The orthodox prayer is regarded in the article as belonging to one among kernel genres of the religious style; we consider it to be a text type representing prototypical language features of the style and content.
Different approaches to the theological and linguistic studies of the prayer are under description. It is noted that the text of the prayer has rarely become an object of special linguistic (vocal) analysis; mostly it has been used as an example of some other linguistic notion.
The analysis of speech structure of the orthodox prayer is based on the point that its intonation-and-vocal features closely interrelate with the content, which defines the inner structure of the prayer in general and relations between the components in particular. The author marks out 3 types of essential features of the text type – semantic, acoustic, and communicative. The semantic features represent the inner content of the prayer, acoustic features support the content development, the communicative features help to reveal the correlation between the vocal-speech organization and the circumstances of communication. The intonation-vocal array of the orthodox prayer is brought to a focus.
It is noted that the traditional orthodox discourse has some types of vocal implementation: invocation, psalmodia, and prayer-reading. The material of research (which is more than 700 recorded prayers) allows to distinguish between a canonic praying manner, which requires to follow traditions in pronunciation of Church-Slavonic sacral texts, and non-canonic praying, that is subject to changes in the phonetic system of the modern Russian literary language which lead to overlapping with the style of declamation phonotype.
The article specifies examples of intonation-and-vocal parameters of both – canonic and non-canonic prayer reading style. As the analysis shows there are some common vocal features with a bi- or poly-top structural variants; their majority is to provide the prosodic frame with its starting and finishing points of syntagmas.
This features of intonation, that is organized in accord with the canonic and noncanonic praying style, helps to prove that modern vocal style of orthodox praying fully preserves the features of Church-Slavonic phonetic features (framing and syntagmatic-andvocal modeling).
The differences between some canonic and non-canonic vocal features are revealed through the preferences in the usage of certain intonation patterns, as well as the usage of acoustic patterns of intonation, besides it is based on the correlation between acoustic components that mark top syllables in syntagmas.

167 Ирина B. Бугаева (Москва)
Functional, grammatic and semantic characteristic features of address in religious sphere

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The purpose of the article is to give a description of communicative and pragmatic functions of address and characterization of vocative’s lexical-grammatical features in religious discourse.
The texts of prayers, acathistuses in Russian language, prosaic and poetic fiction writings, patterns of living colloquial speech recorded in different situations of official and everyday communication have been used as research material.
In the study of nomination modes for addressing in religious discourse three intercrossing and complementary aspects: communicative, lexical and functional ones.
One of the features which are characteristic for religious discourse is more frequent usage of denominative nouns such as The Son, The Savior, The Mistress, The Patroness, The Bride in the vocative function, than that of anthroponymics.
Religious discourse is also characterized by emotive addresses resulted from secondary nomination by means of metaphoric transposition. Such numerous emotive addresses are specific for hymnographic genres and are to be described separately as they comprise sophisticated theological-dogmatic symbols, for instance: a wall, a shield, a vine, a stone, a chariot, a key, a star, a flower, a ship, a luminary, a river, a spring, etc.
The main functional feature of addresses in modern Russian religious discourse is the usage of Church Slavonic vocative (nominative of address) forms. Church Slavonic vocative forms which are normative for liturgical and worship texts infl uence contemporary Russian speech and it is manifested sometimes by regular and appropriate usage of those forms in modern poetry, different genres and types of religious texts. Th us grammatical forms of Church Slavonic origin have become a very important sign of religious discourse. In this case we can speak about the fractional return of the vocative form in the sphere of religious communication, which maybe interpreted as characteristic stylistic feature is represented by the infl uence of Church Slavonic morphology on modern Russian speech.

179 Ксенија Кончаревић (Београд)
Beitrag zur erforshung der metastruktur des liturgishen diskurses:
organisationsprinzipien und diskurs-markers

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Im Aufsatz werden die Besonderheiten der Metastruktur des liturgishen Diskurses im Bereich der prosodischen Gestaltung des sakralen Textes erörtert, die nach den frei aufgenommenen, aber obligatorischen, aus Bedürfnis nach ihrer ausdrücklischen abgeleiteten Differenzierung vom jeweiligen profanen Diskurs realisiert wird. Diese Problematik wird auf dem Beleg der sakralen Sprachen nicht nur der Pax Slavia Orthodoxa – vor allem des Kirchenslawishen – sondern auch der modernen slawischen Standardsprachen im liturgischen Gebrauch erforscht. Es werden die folgenden drei Grundtypen der sprachlichen Interpretation, bzw. der Rhythmus-Intonations-Gestaltung von sakralen Texten analysiert: (a) Psalmodie, (b) Ekphonetik und (c) Melismatik analysiert. Es ist festgestellt, dass die Grundparameter der Umgestaltung der Metastruktur des liturgischen Diskurses universaler Natur sind, bzw. dass die konstitutiven und regulativen Prinzipien der Gestaltung des sakralen Textes einen übernationalen Charakter tragen; ebenfalls wird aber auch auf die Besonderheiten der Gestaltung der Metastruktur des liturgichen Diskurses in verschiedenen slawischen Milieus hingewiesen.

191 Валентина П. Мусиенко (Черкассы)
Stylistic characteristics of verbs meaning intensity of action

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The article studies the question of the interaction between intensity of action semantics and stylistic characteristics in the verb structure concerning denotative and connotative meanings interaction. The corpus of Russian verbs was formed from the Russian dictionary in 4 volumes (Moscow, 1981–1984) as the result of compact selection by multistage identification. The amount of intensively marked verbs equals to 4500 units. The tendency towards mutual determination of ontological intensity and stylistic lowering is stated. Firstly, 63% of lexico-semantic variants with intensity meaning are characterized by conversational or low colloquial colouring and only a small quantity of them is marked by the bookish style. Secondly, the modification of meaning towards its strengthening by affixation or by the meaning transfer is accompanied by the lowering of the stylistic colouring.
The substantiation of this connection is made by means of the category of ontological and stylistic norm. The deviation from the subject-concept norm as the middle of the scale of the action manifestation, which is peculiar to intensive meanings, leads to the deviation of stylistic neutrality as the middle of stylistic scale. It is shown that the intensity through emotionality and evaluation is able to form a certain stylistic colouring. The subject-logical and social sphere of denotatum, the positive or negative assessment of a phenomenon plays a certain role. The opposite impact is also stated: the outdated, elevated units by its stylistic uncommonness strengthen the semantics of intensity.

203 Marie Čechová (Praha)
Stylistic character of phraseology

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The author begins this article with the presentation of the main factors of the stylistic units of phraseology (relativity, component dependence, vividness, limited collocation) and shows their influence on the stylistic character of idiomatic expressions placed to the right and to the left from the neutral point of the axis. As a result the author determines the location of archaisms on the one side of the axis, and jargon expressions on the other. The disquisition presented in the article is very well illustrated with examples taken from the Czech language.

209 Бојана Милосављевић (Београд)
Forms of excuses in formal and informal communication)

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This paper deals with identification and description of various forms of excuses in formal and informal communication. This speech act is first defined on the semantic-pragmatic level following Searle’s constitutive rules, and then forms of excuses are described on the lexical-syntactic level. It has been established by analysis that the most frequent form of excuses in Serbian language is imperative form izvini(te) and also it has been established that the speech act of excuses has and phatic communicative function.

223 Emilia Plăcintar (Cluj)
The oral heritage of intimate letters

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This paper explores the similarities between ordinary conversation and intimate letters, with focus on the devices used in the epistolary form to imitate the ideal oral model by compensating for the temporal and spatial distance between the correspondents.
Our starting point is Bakhtin’s description of speech genres in terms of (1) the utterance as the basic unit of live language use, whose main feature is orientation towards a response from an addressee, (2) the dialogicality of both oral and written communication, and (3) the existence of primary and secondary speech genres.
We claim that intimate epistolary discourse bears much resemblance to naturally occurring conversation, as a fundamental genre, and build a speech-based aesthetic for the analysis of intimate letters. This model draws on the Conversation Analysis perspective, with its focus on the emergence of conversation, and includes the basic elements of conversational discourse, the local intersubjective and accountable construction of talk through the turn system, and the sequential relationships within the turn-taking activity, of which the minimal structure is the adjacency pair.
Our comparison between conversational and epistolary discourse centers on the generative role of the reader and the resultant reciprocality of the letter writing experience. Epistolary form is portrayed as an endeavour to supplement the absence of the shared space and time particular to face-to-face communication through such means as negotiation of meaning through internal reading, writing to the moment, mapping the writer’s coordinates, the I-You reversibility, and the achievement of such joint projects as adjacency pairs or longer series of turn exchanges. To illustrate these means we turn to the fascinating courtship correspondence between Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett (1845–1846).

233 Вероника В. Ганечко (Черкассы)
Paralinguistic action in the communicative act: semantic, functional and stylistic aspects)

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The article deals with the semantic, functional and stylistic aspects of a paralinguistic action nomination in fiction literature. The author describes the peculiarities of a correlation between remarks that contain a verb denoting a paralinguistic action of smile and different types of speech acts in the Russian, Ukrainian, German and English languages. The description of a smile is used mostly with the purpose to reflect the character’s attitude to the object of speech and to the whole communicative situation. The author comes to the conclusion that the verbs of smile correlate with various types of speech acts – expressive, comissive, declarative, representative and directive, and modify illocution of the utterance. Hence the action of smiling has many different functions in speech that are related to interpersonal interaction regulation.

247 Bohumila Junková (České Budějovice)
Конкуренция лексических средств в печатной чешской публицистике

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Статья посвящена некоторым возможностям использования конкурирующих языковых средств в печатной чешской публицистике. Речь идёт об обширной проблематике, поэтому мы остановились лишь на лексическом уровне языка. Выбором подходящих средств из конкурирующего множества публицист реализует свой коммуникативный замысел по отношению к персвазивной функции публицистики. Это касается конкурентов эксплицитных и имплицитных, конкуренции между средствами на разных уровнях когерентности, выражения генерализирующего и специфицирующего, конкурентов абстрактных и конкретизирующих, автоматизированных и актуализированных, нейтрально окрашенных и экспрессивных. Языковой материал мы черпали из ежедневных чешских газет «Млада фронта ДНЭС», «Право», «Лидовэ новины».

255 Daniela Slančová (Prešov)
Stylistics of Slovak and Czech tabloids (on the example of the tabloid daily newspapers Nový čas and Blesk)

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The main aim of the article is to compare stylistics of the long-time best sold Slovak and Czech tabloid newspapers Nový čas and Blesk. The media communicative components concerning both papers are very similar: they have been published from 1992 by the same publisher (Swiss company Ringier), focused on the same kind of readers, having the same structure with similar sections based on special kind of tabloid news. The hypothesis based on empirical knowledge is that the style of both tabloids is very similar, however, the style of the Czech tabloid Blesk is more tabloid-like with higher rate of negative connotation and negative expressiveness and the slight general tendency toward lower style. The hypothesis has been proved by the analysis of headline stylistics (headlines and words with negative connotation, lexical expressiveness, foreign words in headlines, punctuation); predicates accompanying quoted parts of the news, and by stylistic comparison of the articles dealing with the same topic. The analysis has proved the common stylistic qualities of both tabloids with stronger stylistic tendencies towards tabloid stylistics in the Czech daily newspaper Blesk.

273 Стефана Димитрова (София)
About army-sociolekt

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The subject of this paper is one of the contemporary sociolekts of the current bulgarian language, i.e., the army-sociolekt. The author treats this sociolekt as a sum of the individual idiolekts of different people bearing a relation to the army. For this purpose are analysed various texts published in the newspaper “Bulgarian army”.

285 Лидија Тантуровска (Скопје)
Communication between Sales People and Customers

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The aim of this paper is to present verbal communication between sales people and customers, more precisely, the first act of communication between them and the manner in which they address each other. In order to carry out this research, customers were recorded secretly (with the consent and help of the sales people), and in another experiment, dialogues were recorded with neither party aware that they were being recorded. Th rough formal analysis of linguistic forms and the manner of communication, formal and informal relations between are demonstrated.

293 Elena Croitoru (Galaţi)
Negotiating the Meaning of Grammatical Constructions with some English Confusables

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The meanings of words depend on the way they pattern into pharses and sentences and how they are used in situational contexts, the development of a theory of meaning being the central programme of ‘corpus semantics’.
The meaning relations between the terms in grammatical constructions is as interesting as useful to study in foreign language teaching, so much the more as the surface structure can be misleading.
Due to the difficulties and misunderstandings brought about by the English confusables (troublesome words) in text analysis, translation practice and oral interpreting, some lexical items (confusables) are analysed in this paper. We consider such an analysis very useful since confusables are sources of semantic ambiguity and translation traps.

303 Галина Б. Бендетович (Минск)
Indetermination semantique du mot comme phenomene pragmatique

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Le phénomène de l’interprétation ambigue de l’acception du mot polysémique est lié, d’une part, à l’influence des type différents du contexte, notamment, micro-, macro-, mégacontexte. La réalisation simultanée des acceptions différentes a lieu grâce à l’interaction des variantes lexico-sémantiques d’un mot. Le cumul apparaît comme résultat de l’action réciproque complexe des acceptions lexicographiques et contextuelles. Cela amène à l’augmentation informatique du mot dans le contexte, où le degré de l’indétermination est haut. L’hypersémantisation – l’information supplémentaire appliquée à l’acception essetielle – permet à celle-ci de prendre une nouvelle ampleur. Le phénomène de l’ambiguité de l’unité lexicale non seulement dans le système de la langue, mais aussi dans la parole amène aux processus différents contestant la thèse de modification du statut sémantique d’un mot sous l’influance de la pragmatique.
MOTS–CLE: variante lexico-sémantique (VLS), micro-, macro-, mégacontexte, ambiguité sémantique, style, interaction des acceptions, situation, contexte neutre/superflu, hypersémantisation.

316 Alexandra Šípová (České Budějovice)
Contemporary Czech-American periodicals and their specifics in the syntactic plan

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Czech-American periodicals are one of the greatest sources of American Czech, a variety of Czech developing under the American English influence. The article focuses on some of the most remarkable phenomena of the syntactic plan of the Czech texts in these periodicals that may be motivated by English. The most apparent of these phenomena are calques of English prepositional phrases and whole syntactic structures. Further on, in the texts it is very often possible to detect many deviations in word order where a Czech sentence copies the word order pattern of an English sentence which is far more fixed. Amongst other noteworthy English-motivated structures that can be observed in the analysed periodicals are verbonominal predications of the verbs have and get, verbal nouns and adjectives, and also transgressives as the results of more frequent English nominal constructions. Finally, the article compares the extent to which each Czech- American periodical is affected with American English, and tries to suggest the reasons for the process of americanization at the syntactic level.

319 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
Distributive Rhyme Schemes in Serbian Folk Lyric Poetry

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In this paper the author deals with the distributive rhyme schemes in Serbian folk lyric poetry. Generally speaking, rhyme can occur in three different structures within verse forms: 1) vertical, 2) horizontal, and 3) vertical-horizontal. For the purpose of discovering its systematic quality in verse structures, it is best to observe rhyme in the three basic structural positions: (a) the beginning of a line, (b) the position of caesura and (c) the position of clausula. Of course, rhyme can also exist, and it often does, in other positions within a verse, inside the first or the second half-verse. Applying this knowledge, the author has found and analyzed the following types of rhyme in the selected material – clausular, which occurs in six different schemes: (1) absolute rhyme, (2) elliptic rhyme, (3) alternating rhyme, (4) intermittent rhyme, (5) partial rhyme and (6) sudden rhyme; – anaphoric rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; – medial rhyme, which also occurs in a number of different forms; – ring rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; – leonine rhyme, which occurs in a number of different forms; The author has demonstrated that when we are considering a broader context: (a) a larger part of a poem or (b) the whole poem – these rhyme schemes often correlate between themselves and they function together complementing one another. By this the author has finally showed that rhyme is constantly present in this type of Serbian folklore, as well as that there is a highly developed repertoire of different rhyme schemes which are preconditioned by different positions within a verse or poem.

335 Алма Ћишић (Тузла)
Qualitative Rhyme Schemes in Poetry of Bosnian and Herzegovian Poets

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The research subject of this paper are the qualitative rhyme schemes in Bosnian and Herzegovian poetry in the period between 1878. and 1918. Although the literature of the above mentioned period represents a continuous stage in the development of Bosnian and Herzegovian literature, which is confirmed by its undeniable literary and aesthetic values, as far as we know, no one so far has dealt with questions concerning rhyme. The poetry of Bosnian and Herzegovian poets created in the period between 1878 and 1918 according to its content-related (thematic and motif) elements belongs mostly to Romanticism, while a smaller part is also associated with Modernism. One should mention here that only the poetic opus of J. Dučić is more inclined towards Modernism than towards Romanticism. At the expression level (the poetic form, type of verse and rhyme schemes) this poetry is much closer to Modernism than Romanticism, because when a type of poem is concerned, the number of sonnet forms is evident. The lines are mostly rhymed classical decameters, hendecameters and dodecameters, which is a characteristic of Modernism rather than Romanticism. Rhyme with its phonetic structure (mostly with its quality) demonstrates, except in the poetry of O. Djikić, that it was mostly formed according to the principles of canonized rhyme. The analyzed poetry although created by poets belonging to three different nationalities: Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian – does not in any sense, and particularly in the sense of rhyming techniques, express polarity according to religion or nationality. The language in which it was written points to a unique language structure with smaller differences only at the lexical level. Using the terminology of M. Ž. Čarkić, we have found that there are four qualitative rhyme schemes functioning in the analyzed poetry: isomorphic, epenthetic, metathetic and metathetic-epenthetic. However, they are employed in various degrees: isomorphic 86.10%, epenthetic 12.37%, metahetic 0.15% and metathetic-epenthetic 0.78%.

347 Elżbieta Sierosławska (Kraków)
Musikalische und Wortakzente in den Texten der Operarien am Beispiel der Isella- -Arie aus der Oper Die Verschworenen von F. Schubert

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Der Artikel handelt von einem die Beziehungen zwischen dem sprachlichen und musikalischen Text betreffenden Aspekt, nämlich vom Akzent. Hierfür diente als Untersuchungsmaterial die Isella-Arie aus der Oper Die Verschworenen von Franz Schubert und die polnische Version von Ryszard Karczykowski. Es wurden der sprachliche, der Wortakzent im Deutschen und der musikalische Akzent kurz dargestellt, sowie ihr Einfluss aufeinander. Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass in einer Opernarie der musikalische und der Wortakzent übereinstimmen müssen, sowohl im Original als auch im Translat. Sonst kann der Text, der sprachliche Text für den Zuhörer unverständlich sein.

353 Sabina Giergiel (Opole)
Prison civilisation or the world upside down. Godine koje su pojeli skakavci by Borislav Pekic

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The text named Prison civilisation or the world upside down presents a book by Borislav Pekic called Godine koje su pojeli skakavci. This work touches directly writer’s personal experience of imprisonment. Borislav Pekic, playing a role of peculiar prison community researcher, proves that this kind of sphere has the features that make it similar to the ancient cultures. There is a kind of law in prison worked out by the convicts, consisting of characteristic system of rules and rites, a peculiar prison code, as well as of mythology being the pure foundation of prison civilisation and represented by: a myth of innocence, a myth of woman, and a myth of freedom. An imprisoned man functions not so much as an individual, but is rather perceived as a member of specific group (we need to add that Pekic calls his prison cell a family cell) for which he takes responsibility and on which he depends. Thus there is no freedom of the individual sense, everything is common, the decisions are taken collectively, there is no purely individual responsibility. All these features of prison civilisation mentioned remain in clear opposition to the principles that rule a free world. Because prison civilisation is “different”. “Different” are the rules of conduct, moral code, judgement and guilt. Everything here is relative: relatively good, relatively short or safe. In prison lies are means of fight with the system, but they are also fundamental means enabling to survive. However – paradoxically – the reality of free man, functioning within the oppressive system (in this case a communist one), is also ruled by lies. The omnipresent mechanism of control and intimidation demands the average society member to hide they own beliefs and to exist in the state of permanent pretending. Moreover, in the work analysed, there is a clear division presented, based on the places’ opposition of the adapted/safe and the alienated/dangerous. And so the condemned himself starting from the judgement, and then by being put to penitentiary and by prolonging time of imprisonment, goes through successive inner circles representing the next stages of initiation.

365 Barbara Stawarz (Kraków)
The Sadness of Idyll. About eclogues by Joseph Brodsky

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The article presents the functioning of the genre of idyll in contemporary poetry, using the example of Joseph Brodsky’s work.
The Russian poet refers to a classic (Eclogue 4 by Virgil) and sentimentalist model, assimilates all the topics and motifs which this form incorporated during its history (e.g. the cult of the earth, the opposition of nature and culture, the motif of a “golden age”, the search for natural bonds with people) and interprets them polemically. As a result of the polemic assimilation of the “language” of the eclogue (e.g. the idyllic immeasurable time is transformed into a torment of extensive time and emptiness of life, the man is exposed to merciless action of Cold, Time and Space and peace changes into the apathy of a baited man), and according to the idea of romantic irony (coexistence of opposites and the feeling of the tragic), the poet achieves the effect of caricatural commentary to historical timeliness.

377 Ivo Pospišil (Brno)
Poetics and Personalism (A Reflection of a Book on the Occasion of Drahomír Šajtar’s Anniversary)

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The author takes in consideration work of the Czech literary scholar Drahomír Šajtar (born 1922) in general and of one of his latest books in Russian literature in particular evaluates his method, defining it as a personalist one due to Šajtar’s Prague teacher Václav Černý. The book called The Black Swans depicts the life and psychology as well as political circumstances and poetics and style of the leading figures of the 20th century Russian literature, especially the authors of the so-called South-Western school (V. Katayev, E. Bagricky, I. Ilf, E. Petrov and others). Šajtar’s essayism, intuitivism and comparative vision combined with “close reading” and deep interest in poetics, style and genre of literary artifact form an original methodological cluster sensitive to the most prolific approaches to 20th century literature as such.

383 Reinhard Ibler (Giessen)
Gottfried August Bürger und die Entstehung der tschechischen Ballade

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Zu den wichtigsten Impulsgebern der frühen tschechischen Balladendichtung gehörte Gottfried August Bürger (1747–1797), der nicht nur wegen seiner berühmten Lenore zu den herausragenden europäischen Balladendichtern zählt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Übersetzungen bzw. Nachdichtungen Bürgerscher Balladen untersucht, die im ersten der von Antonín Jaroslav Puchmajer seit 1795 herausgegebenen „Almanache“ enthalten sind, einem der bedeutendsten Publikationsforen für die frühen Vertreter der tschechischen Wiedergeburtsliteratur. Konkret geht es um Prokop Šedivýs Ballade Ukrutný myslivec, die auf Bürgers Der wilde Jäger beruht, sowie um Puchmajers Nachdichtung von Bürgers Der Kaiser und der Abt, die den Titel Jiří král a Vaněk Všeboj trägt. Außerdem wird kurz gezeigt, inwieweit Vojtěch Nejedlýs Lenka mit Bürgers Lenore zusammenhängt. Nicht zuletzt auf der Grundlage kurzer Textvergleiche soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Funktion diese frühen Balladenübersetzungen im Hinblick auf die weitere Entwicklung der tschechischen Ballade erfüllten.

393 Goran Maksimović (Niš)
Itinerary Boka Kotorska by Lazar Tomanovic and Simo Matavulj

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In this essay there were analized two related itinerary texts about Boka Kotorska by Lazar Tomanovic, Bay of Kotor (1868), and Simo Matavulj, Boka and the people from Boka (1893). The point in this essay were on authentical itinerary adventures and pictures of Boka Kotorska, on Boka’s ethnopsychology and national character. Also the point were at ethnographics, folklor and languages particulary on this extent, also on historical, geographical and economical studies which showed very reliable past time and current reality Boka Kotorska in the second half of 19th century.

409Krzysztof Trochimiuk (Kraków)
Anger in Lalka by Bolesław Prus

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The aim of this analysis is to reveal instruments used to communicate anger in Lalka [The Doll] by Bolesław Prus. The author understands that a text, as a tool of communication, cannot have at its disposal body language, intonation, or prosodic features; thus may lack clear boundaries clarifying a relatively imprecise expressive message. Nevertheless it is claimed that the textual form cannot be denied its potential to express emotions in a variety of ways guaranteeing a relatively successful communication of the rather elusive concept of anger. Linguistic changes that have occurred since the time when the text was published, were also taken into account. The present work helps understand the meaning of a number of words that have ceased to be used but are expressive in nature and communicate anger in the analyzed text.
The scrutiny of the text has unearthed a number of textual elements indicating anger such as invectives, interjections, rhetorical questions, and exclamatory phrases. As it has also been shown, the layout of the text itself may also have a potential to mimic anger and add to the general expressive message. All textual tools used in expressing anger are further exemplified by citations from the text. This article also argues that the use of expressive language is systematically and consistently applied within the distinctive sociolinguistic confines of the sender; characteristic language description of characters in Lalka remains methodical throughout the text. The importance of context is also stressed, as it is critical in narrowing down potential interpretations to a point where it is possible to define the meaning of a specific word, phrase, or any other element as one involved in expressing anger.
This paper has not analyzed all text examples where anger is expressed; the author’s goal was only to systematize and exemplify the instruments used by Bolesław Prus. The author also believes that the aspect of intensifying expression calls for further analysis.

Book Reviewsdownload all reviews (1,16MB)

421 Krzysztof Trochimiuk (Kraków)
Agnieszka Spagińska-Pruszak: Język emocji. Studium leksykalno-semantyczne rzeczownika w języku polskim, rosyjskim i serbsko-chorwackim. Oficyna Wydawnicza Leksem, Łask 2005, str. 166.

423 Barbara Stawarz (Kraków)
Штайн К. Э.: Гармония поэтического текста. Склад. Гармония. Фактура. Ставрополь: Изд-во СГ У, 2006. – 645 с.

426 Tadeusz Borucki (Kraków)
Tadeusz Szczerbowski: Wyspy Hawajskie. Język i tradycja. T .1. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, 2006. – 358 s.

428 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Anna Zelenková: Slovenská prozódia a verzifikácia v rukopise Štefana Krčméryho (1935). Slovanský ústav AV ČR, Euroslavica, Praha 2006, 140 s.

Neznámý rukopis v úskalí česko-slovenských vztahů

431 М. А. Ширинкина (Пермь)
Стереотипность и творчество в тексте: Межвузовский сборник научных трудов / Отв. ред. М. П. Котюрова; Перм. ун-т. Пермь.

441 Павел А. Катышев, Станислав В. Оленев (Кемерово)
Мария П. Котюрова и Елена А. Баженова: Культура научной речи: Текст и его редактирование, Пермь 2007, 282 с.

Current Issuesdownload current issues (250KB)

445 Татјана Анђелковић (Ниш)
Хемија животне средине – кључ у решавању проблема антропосфере

Anniversariesdownload anniversaries (250KB)

449 Милоје М. Ракочевић (Београд)
Петар II Петровић Његош (Поводом 160 година од објављивања Горског вијенца)

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