Style 2009


11 Мария П. Котюрова (Пермь)
Tendency to New Phenomena Developing in Scientific Style of Speech
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Some new phenomena in scientific style of speech connected with words functioning (of the “problem”, “process”, “fact”, etc. – type, i.e. words of wide epistemic semantics) are considered in this article.
Some factors influencing such words usage are defined.
Tendencies to new phenomena developing within standards of the Russian language scientific style.
Some cases (examples) of obvious speech errors in using words are given.

21 Лариса С. Тихомирова (Пермь)
Problem of scientific textualism: from intertext to the hypertext

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The problem of scientific textualism is solved through intertext and the hypertext. Intertext designates not only interaction of texts, but also expansion of borders of the text, its transformation in nonlinear, opened, heterogeneous and plural. The mechanism intertext can be considered in view of transformation of forms of the text, transformation of the maintenance (presence / absence of new substantial components), and also in view of function of the text (its specific transformations).
The diagram of hypertext communications of lexical units of the nonlinear text shows, that in a basis of structure of the hypertext lays intertext communication. As a result of methods all possible text formations as shows an illustrative material, any text can be considered as the hypertext. The architectural organization of the new text relieves it of linear perusal, and the semantic system of the text assumes set of strategy of reading. Thus, the researcher of the hypertext can act as the co-author of this text as the hypertext is based on art nonlinear construction and multilayered semantic interpretation.

31 Любовь В. Левшун (Минск)
On Logos Transfi gurans and Logos Transfi guratus: An endeavor of theologically biased approach in medieval Style Studies concerning homiletic texts in Slavia Orthodoxa

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Regulations of Christian theory of Art, iconology, anthropology, soteriology and adjacent theological doctrines should be taken into consideration by modern investigators of medieval Slavia Orthodoxa scribes heritage as important factors, determining productive activity as well as text reception and proper critical style assessment of texts under study. Such a theologically tentative approach must needs be based on assumption of special Poetics of Truth, demanding, for example, elevated style for lofty matters in strict correspondence between chosen topic and certain stylistic means of expression. The scale of objects for depiction is then established from the point of view of their value for salvation. So the loft iest of them is that one which demands the elevated register of expression, because it provides guidance to Supreme Truth, leading its addressee to apotheosis/salvation. When a canonic Christian word achieves this end, it is most proper to name it as Logos Transfigurans. Pragmatic factors, concerning the character of addressee, guide the choice of proper stylistic means for optimal message processing [cf. Hebrews 5: 12–13] and according to the eff ectual working in the measure of every part [cf. Ephesians 4: 16]. So in this connection Style within frame of Christian artistic canon may be viewed as marking salvatory value of a certain artistic image for certain classes of its recipients.
Quite a different attitude towards Logos and Truth is revealed in works of art, produced not in compliance with Christian artistic canon, though tending to imitate and emulate it. A non-canonic Christian scribe is then fishing for a proper name of depicted. Yet this vain trying to invent proper Word causes incertitude in word choice. So, as a result, the Truth of the depicted becomes not only represented vaguely, wrapped and veiled by piles of words, but also often distorted. In this case the very high-flown style markers elicit the hopeless incompetence of the profane writer. The more adorned and aloof manner of expression is practiced, the more ridiculous and frustrating effects tend to be achieved. And the corruption of man is then followed by corruption of logos. So it is proper to speak of logos transfiguratus, that is a noble word, mercilessly truncated in its reduced, distorted and heartless usage.

43 Мария А. Ширинкина (Пермь)
Interpretational Discourse in the Legal Sphere of Communication

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Interpretation of law is a specific form of juridical discourse. Communication participants in the process of law interpretation are the lawyer (the expert who is in possession of juridical knowledge) and the nonexpert (who is transmitted the meaning of legislative intents in available form). In consequence of law interpretation originates a group of texts, which is aimed at interpretation and is marked by the specific organization of linguistic units of different levels.

53 Ирина B. Бугаева (Москва)
Stylistic features of word-formation: compound words in speech of orthodox religious

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This article is devoted the composition description as one of active and productive ways of word-formation in language of modern orthodox religious. The attention addresses for three basic ways of activization of compound words: returning in everyday speech before become outdated church-slavonic words, formation of new compound words on old models and occurrence of the new compound words formed on models which did not meet earlier in the orthodox environment. As research material texts of biographies and letters have served spiritual children of several recently passed away and very esteemed elders: the elder Nikolay (Guryanov), the hegumen-abbot Gabriel (Vladimiroff), abbot Boris (…), the archimandrit Rafael (Karelin), the elder Paisij Athonite, the elder Joseph Vatopedi, and also literary works of modern orthodox writers and an author’s card file of models of speech of religious.
Word-formation researches help studying of outlook of religious, cultures of their behaviour and mutual relations. In language of religious models of historical and modern word-formation that has been shown on an example of functioning of compound words in speech of the modern orthodox religious. One part of words «comes back» from a number become outdated in active use, another − is reproduced on Church Slavonic models and types, creating neologisms, and the third − is created on new word-formation models. The great number of compound words is the important feature of texts of a religious functional-style complex.

65 Ивана Кнежевић (Београд)
On some characteristisc of the religious style in English and Serbian languages

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This article deals with one of the newer issues in the domain of the functional stylistics, i.e. with the new member in this group – religious style, church style or sacral functionalstylistic complex, as diff erent linguists tend to name it. It has been recently suggested to introduce and analyze it, since religion has also been one of the forms of social consciousness.
Following some of the recent studies we have listed some of the characteristics of the language that has been used in the church and in scientifi c theological writings. The religious style is considered a closed system existing in both written and oral language code, and as such it has some distinguishable language characteristics considering syntax, grammar, lexis, orthography, etc.
Bearing in mind the lexical characteristics of the religious style Bugaeva mentioned, we have analyzed certain theological and texts dealing with the Orthodox Church in both English and Serbian languages, trying to point out at some specifi c lexical means that each language uses. Comparing them, where it was possible, we attempted to underline the similarities and differences in their use in order to “transfer as close as possible” their stylistic characteristics in the process of their translation.
We have tried to stress the importance of further and more detailed analysis of the characteristic of Serbian language in this part of its social role. It is necessary not only in theoretical but it would also have its practical impact, since in the process of translation of scientifi c theological and church texts not only their context but also its stylistics value should be properly transferred.

77 Татьяна В. Охрименко (Київ)
Logical and Linguistic Categories of Identity and Similarity as a Base of Metaphorical Group Tropes

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Logical categories of identity and similarity have long been the base of metaphorical group tropes first and foremost of comparative transferences such as metaphor and figurative simile. The categories of identity and similarity are equal in view of reflecting the reality partition law. The law is revealed in the presence of the originally given tertium comparationis, i.e. the connecting characteristic, the base of transference.
Similarity, however, as referred to the simplest binary category of identity appears in the process of language development. Similarity characterizes the type of consciousness which is close to the actual (partitioned) and far from the mythological (prototypal). The mental construct of figurative similarity becomes more complicated, the connecting characteristic even if verbalised is semantically narrowed. The subjective factor is more important as similarity is considered individually. Similarity and its qualifying tropes are the display of partitioned consciousness. The symbolic content of metaphor is extended and blurred, the mental construct (trinary and variable now) becomes more complicated, the subjective factor effect is intensified, near similarity is used instead of the real transference.
Among others are syncretic formations representing the synthesis of metaphorical transference. These fi gurative units are the manifestation of abstract, partitioned consciousness and reveal the attempts to establish further identity.

89 Світлана Іваненко (Київ)
Rhythmic tonal text structure of the postmodern novel by Christoph Ransmayr The Last World

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The article deals with problems of tonal construction of the text and presents the various tips of language functioning based on the concept of the text generation predetermined by the activity factor, rhythm theory and the concept of psychic stereotypes of different kinds of activity, which constitute a form system and have an influence on tonality as a text unit and as a text category.
Tonalities are some kinds of patterns of the certain expression tips, which are based on the composition form rhythm and filled by expression of grammar-syntactic and lexical-stylistic means of speech. It corresponds to intention and the author attitude to communicational subject in oral or written communicative situations.
The basic tonality of the novel by Christoph Ransmayr The Last World is the sad one. This novel belongs to the postmodernism, so it has the ironic-sarcastic tonality too. The tonality paradigm of this novel consists of epic-dramatic stylistic tonality in its ironic-sarcastic appearance realised in a warning, anxious, sad, pathetic, sinister, desperate, ironic and sarcastic tones.

99 Юрий А. Сорокин (Москва)
Linguistic culturology, lacunology, somatology regarded per se and with respect to their a priori correlation: an endeavor to extend modern apparatus criticus

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Modern culturology, aimed at monitoring cultural markers, needs a counterpart best defi ned as semio-culture-o-sophy. Whilst linguistic culturology is anthropocentric, semio-culturosophy by contrast with its complementary counterpart tends to be anthropo-philic. Semio-culturosophy is keen primarily on intentional substances/subjects, belonging to basic fund of human consciousness and reflectivity, rather than on investigating cultural objects (e.g. segments of intra-culturally marked speech).The latter named memes (and on the reverse – mnemes as well) are viewed as fractal components of culture. Culture is regarded as a symbiotic infrastructure (it comprises both natura naturans and natura naturata), existing both as substantial complex of cultural objects and as a semiotic complex. Subtle multifold distinction between ecto-genetic and anti-haptic cultures is reviewed in the light of the concept of mneme/meme ethnic formations. Dialoguing correlation between culture viewed as adaptive mechanism and geo-, bio- and homo-scapes is presumed.
Different lingua-culturosophic / semio-culturosophic communities confront one another in representing sums of such components, which are transparent / usual in one community and non-transparent/opaque/not usual in other (so far different) communities. Lacunological investigations aim at monitoring and interpreting / explicating instances of opaqueness within frame of one (autochthonous) community (intra-linguaculturosophic / intra-semio-culturosophic studies) and within frame of contrastive interlingua-culturosophic/inter-semio-culturosophic studies.
Lacunology may be treated as a part of doxography / doxology (δοξογραφια / δοξολογια). The latter splits into synchronic (syn-doxo-graphy / doxology) and diachronic (diadoxography / dia-doxology). The same division concerns lacunology as well (synlacunology / dia-lacunology). In return doxography / doxology may be defined as verbal or non-verbal (which is already a matter of fact with lacunology). As for somatology, it should be regarded as a part of doxography / doxology as well. Likewise one can discern the difference between dia-somatology and syn-somatology.
To recapitulate with – a signifi cant semantic disparity should be noticed concerning the notions of concept and doxa (Δοξα, doksa). Whilst the former is sensu stricto a result/just a sum of rational eff orts to grasp the subject so that it can be viewed within frame of rational approach and not otherwise, the latter remains virtually a child of both reason and sense.

107 Александр К. Гадомский (Симферополь)
About genres of the religious language in Polish and Russian theolinguistics

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In contemporary Russian and Polish theolinguistics there are diverse approaches to describe the religious language. One of these approaches is the genre method, which is closely connected with the problem of describing the religious style. The scholars representing this approach presume that the religious language in this method may be considered as a system of genres, which have their specific features.

119 Зоран Ранковић (Београд)
The Maturing of St. Sava

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The biographers of St. Sava, Domentianus and Theodosius, describing his life age use terms and expressions whish point not only to Sava’s age but also to his spiritual maturing. In describing the bodily growth they follow the ancient concept of the maturing of a human being. In describing Sava’s spiritual maturing they use the expressions and terms that in an adequate way represent the rank that Sava has at the given moment. There is only a slight difference in the terminology that Domentianus and Theodosius use.

127 Евгений В. Плисов (Нижний Новгород)
The Hymn of the Mother of God (Magnifi cat) as an autonomous liturgical text: language peculiarities of usage in orthodox German divine service

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The paper treats the Hymn of the Mother of God (Magnificat) as an autonomous liturgical text, usage of which has over-confessional character. The reason for borrowing the text from the Holy Scriptures into the liturgical language is in the signifi cance of the text for the doctrinal statement (this is ensured by deep bows and bows from the waist, on holy days and Sundays, enjoined by the Church Rule, and by censing the church and the worshippers while singing the Hymn) and in the particular rhythm of the Hymn which gives the opportunity to sing it at the service without any special variation. The text belongs to the obligatory stylistic means, which form liturgical substyle of the religious style of modern German.
The translations under the analyses render the sense of the prayer fully and exactly. The used lexemes don’t contain words and combinations confessional with coloring, which could have brought to dogmatic and national cultural “foreignness” of the text. The first two translations are based on syntactical structure of the Greek and Church Slavonic originals, and the third one comes from the Latin variant. There are the following types of variation: synonymy of nouns and verbs, changeability of nominal and verbal designations, morphological doublets, word-for-word and variant repeat, designations of sacral subjects (and possessive pronouns) are written with capital/small letters, usage of prepositional phrases, what brings concretization or abstracting of the sense of the utterance. Punctuation in the translations is highly varied.
Having lexical, grammatical and stylistic variations the translations achieve the necessary level of equivalence and the liturgical text of the Hymn is suitable to use at the service.

135 Ксенија Кончаревић (Београд)
The typicons of St. Sava as a source for studying Serbian ascetic culture of communication

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This paper deals with the complex and systematic description of the culture of communication of the monasticism in the Serbian speaking, socio-cultural community from the diachronic perspective following the situational model of description. The aim is to comprehend the specifi c characteristics of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviour based on the material provided by the oldest Serbian monastery typicons from the end of the 11th and 12th centuries written by St. Sava (The Typicons of Karayas, Chilandar, Studenica and The Directory for Keeping the Book of Psalms).
The description of the monastic culture of communication in the medieval Serbia reveals that, according to a number of norms of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviour, it respected the norm and the tradition accepted in the culture of communication of sketic and coenobitic monasticism in the communities in which it originated or fl ourished (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Russia), to which some of our previous papers were dedicated, but with certain characteristics which allow us to speak of the formation of a specifi c type of Serbian monastic spirituality. At the same time, it has not changed much up to these days, which is, undoubtedly, one more testimony of the universal, “beyond national” and timeless monastic service and of the corresponding way of life.

147 Bohumila Junková (České Budějovice)
Intercultural communication: the journalist versus the reader

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Intercultural communication is a considerably broad concept; it is usually understood as a dialogue between the representatives of different cultures. At present, growing importance is attributed to intercultural communication in media, mainly due to the fact that is it able to affect large numbers of people.
Our study deals with a particular form of intercultural communication observed from the viewpoint of the complicated relationship between a journalist and a reader of the texts of written Czech journalism. The contact is always indirect. The address, the newspaper reader, actually represent a heterogeneous group of individuals of different age, education, experience, and the journalist is supposed to accept these cultural differences.
The study is focused on linguistic, mainly lexical means seen from the perspective of the choice from a broad range of possibilities, on the journalist`s reasoning, on the means used to express the journalist’s relation to the reader. We attempted to survey the topics of journalistic communication, the ways of creating and maintaining the contact between the journalist and the reader, the use of graphic and ideographic means and their function in serious daily papers as well as tabloids.

155 Ирина A. Щирова (Санкт-Петербург)
On the problem of complexity: oppositions in the system of characters as a means of defining the author’s viewpoints

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Living in a complex world we have to deal with complex problems one of them being the problem of discovering the author’s subjective evaluation of two worlds – the fictional world as the model of reality and the world of reality itself, the author’s attitude to the latter being more relevant for the interpreter. A possible way of interpreting this evaluation is to treat a system of characters in a fi ctional text as a system of mediums of the author’s mind. The task is far from being simple, however. First, the author’s evaluation is oft enconveyed by means of a too complicated system of fictional quasi-subjects: characters, narrators, narratees etc. Second, modern literature is often full of the author’s deep psychological insights. In such psychological prose the spiritual, emotional and mental lives of the characters rather than the plot and the action are the main concern. The author shows the workings of the mind explicitly or implicitly through the character’s actions, words, facial expressions, movements and other details associated with the character’s inner word, but in any case we can’t hear the author’s voice distinctly. As the author’s evaluation is implied, the process of decoding becomes more intricate. To say more, the infl uence of the subconscious both on the creative process and on “the quasi-subjects’ thoughts and actions” should not be ignored. Thus, to discover the author’s subjective evaluation represented in the characters opinions of reality is difficult. The most promising approach here is to build up a hierarchy of binary oppositions embracing the system of characters and implying various levels of abstraction (Cf. protagonist vs. antagonist and the protagonist’s fidelity vs. the antagonist’s treachery) to trace the evaluative connotations the members of the oppositions are charged with. Showing something as good or bad the author, in fact, exposes his subjective perception of the world. However, any rigid borders here are out of the question, because of the potential open-endedness of interpretation and the complexity of the problem discussed.

167 Андрей А. Богатырёв (Тверь)
A Stylistic Schema, communicating Erlebnis of Anxiety in Fiction Text

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The article deals with a stylistic schema, bolstering emotional impact of a story of apostasy and spiritual destruction of man as anticipated and ushered by intense Anxiety. It contains some stylistic observations concerning Hawthorne’s ‘Young Goodman Brown’ opening sentence as well as an excerpt from Nikolai Gogol’s ‘Viy’ (both published in 1835). Focus on philologically observable contact manifold semantic reiteration of invariant emotionally charged concept/Noema of “trespass/apostasy” allows uncovering the contingent pathos of the unfolding narrative in advance. The symbolic nature of Anxiety Erlebnis (German for ‘sense’, that is inner experience of soul as grasped intentionally), permeating the storytelling is exposed. Taking into consideration the semantic aspect in contrastive analysis of stylistic technique of a subversivethreshold/transgression” depiction by the two Romantic writers allows assessing a shift in narrative pathos from ‘tragedy’ to ‘horror’ (limited to a text fraction, though).
Textual conditions for actualization as well as reduction of anxiety-provoking semantic structures in act of reading are treated. So the ‘semantic mass’ of mentioned sources of hazard in a text does not lead directly to the effect of prevalence of Anxiety in narrative unless its intensity is being bolstered and textual reduction of nociceptive supraliminal event steadily avoided. The latter kind of event is significant for Fear, whilst Anxiety is concerned with losing appreciated status quo/self-identity or desired objective (call it Faith, Hope, Love or Life).
Anxiety interpretant (just a term, introduced by semioticians Charles Sanders Pearce and Charles William Morris) works in a text prospectively as well as retrospectively/retroactively, for it also leads to reinterpretation/reassessment of seemingly subliminal (at first view) nominative units and events in the text, contingent on interpreter’s Einstellung/set in text decoding.

177 Marina S. Kogan (Sankt-Peterburg)
Significance of Joseph Brodsky’s Commencement Addresses in Linguistic Curriculum

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The article points out the practicability of studying Joseph Brodsky’s Commencement Addresses in Linguistic Curriculum of students majoring in Linguistics, namely in such courses as American History and Culture and Stylistics of the English Language. Addressing the graduates of American colleges the poet touches upon the issues he repeatedly dealt with in his poems, essays, and interviews, such as themes of survival and mortality, faith and the lack of it, the priority of mundane over the spiritual, community life as compared to individual life, withstanding the evil, the role of the language, etc.
This fact allows us to consider Brodsky’s Commencement Addresses as reflection of the poet’s views. The limited length of addresses and the age of his listeners make them especially suitable for analysis in the classroom within the courses and might become a departing point for further exploration of the author’s heritage. Stylistic analysis of “Speech at the Stadium”, which is a good example of linguistic variety, is especially recommended for educational purposes.

189 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Comparative Literary Studies: Alluring Innovation, High-Quality Tradition

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The author of the present article deals with some aspects of the contemporary state of comparative literary studies. He regards as the main problem an insuffi cient degree of the integration of traditional values of comparative studies and new approaches which appeared recently, especially a spatial aspect of comparative literary studies linked to area and cultural studies and innovative methodological approaches. In this context, he refers to several publications having either innovative, or rather traditional character: some of them demonstrate the possibility of enriching the tradition and, at the same time preserving the kernel of traditional cognitive values.
In the very beginning the author demonstrates an inner conflict in the general methodology of literary criticism between “soft ” and “hard” approaches, disciplinarity and inter- and multidisciplinarity. Unlike the conceptions of Ľ. Plesník and Z. Rédey, he presents the opinion that it is possible to transcend to other spheres, but not to stay there: this concerns both humanities and social sciences, philosophy and religion, otherwise there is a threat of dilettantism and a weaker functionality. This process is manifested by the example of comparative literary studies from its classical, traditional form through the genetic, contactological and typological stages up to the morphological, structural (eidological) stages on the work of A. Veselovsky, F. Wollman and D. Ďurišin‘s specific interliterary communities and interliterariness. The book History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe: Junctures and Disjunctures in the 19th and 20th Centuries (editors John Neubauer a Marcel Cornis-Pope, I–I I I. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2004–2007) demonstrates the disputability of the notions “East Central Europe” and “literary culture” and the inspiration by cultural and area studies. The innovations and transcendences of comparative studies towards other disciplines is inevitable, but at the same time there also exist traditional approaches. The author regards as prolific a slightly innovative methods manifested in the works of the two slavists and comparatists H. Voisine-Jechová and D. Kšicová tending on the one hand towards general comparative studies, i. e. comparison of various kinds of art, on the other towards the integration of the history of national literatures into supranational contexts (theory of literary history) without leaving traditional positivist, genetic, typological and morphological methods which brought good results in the past.

209 Людмила В. Царева (Санкт-Петербург)
C. M. Barker’s Creative Works and the Pre-Raphaеlitees

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The article deals with the creative work of C. M. Barker, an English artist and poet (1895–1973), who wrote and illustrated 8 books of flower fairies, glorifying a number of blooming plants of England. Her books are hardly known in Russia since her poems have never been translated into Russian.
The author of the article has made an attempt to make a poeticаl translation of one of her books, “Flower Fairies of the Winter”, hoping to publish it in Russia.
In the article both pictorial and verbal aspects of C. M. Barker’ s work are analyzed, being inseparable components of her creativity. The predominant influence of the Pre-Raphaelites’ artistic movement on C. M. Barker’s work is traced in detail. Some parallel original/translated (by the author) verses are included.

213 Радмило Маројевић (Београд)
On potential monosyllabicity of the second beat in Serbian epic non-symmetric decasyllable

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This article deals with the issue of the nature of the second (medial) beat in Serbian epic non-symmetric decassylable with the presupposition that it might have been monosyllabic. The examples from the Serbian folk epics (Asan-aginica, Erlangen manuscript and Vuk’s collections) have been taken into consideration in the fi rst part of the study with the conclusion that the monosyllabicity was not the characteristic of this poetry.The examples from the Serbian artistic poetry (from the epic Luča Mikrokozma) have been discussed in the second part with the concluding remark that the medial beat of the second semisyllable might have been monosyllabic being one of Njegosh’s innovations in versification.

225 Milosav Ž. Čarkić (Belgrade)
The Right-Hand Boundary of Rhyme

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Many researchers of rhyme have so far put forward the thesis that rhyme begins with the fi rst accented vowel and runs to the end of the rhyming words. It thus follows from their claim that the right-hand boundary of the rhyming words and the right-hand boundary of rhyme are in complete accord. Considering Serbian poetry, while this phenomenon can also apply to other national poetries, we have proved that the right boundary of the rhyming words and the right boundary of rhyme are often in some collision with each other. The discrepancies found between the two kinds of boundaries can be demonstrated in various ways: the discrepancy can occur in only one rhyming unit, e.g. obla – oblak, onim – goni; it can also occur in both the rhyming units, e.g. lijep – svijet, oblik – oblih. In most cases the incompatible phonemes are consonants: potop – krvotok, mlitav – ritam, and in a very small number of cases they can be vocalic phonemes: mesta – često, žive – sliva. Only rarely do these processes cover whole stanzas, e.g. okom – opi – svesna – desni – sklopiv – duboko, where rhyme applies to the first and sixth verse line: okom – duboko, the second and the fifth one: opi – sklopiv, the third and the fourth one: svesna – desni. Following these observations, the author hopes that the future rhyme researchers will be more cautious and meticulous in dealing with problems concerning the rhyming of poetic texts.

237 Ана Пејановић (Никшић)
Gorski vijenac as a precedent text

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This article deals with the phenomena of the Serbian linguistic and cultural area. Lead-in about Gorski vijenac being the precedent text of Serbian culture brings in to consideration the instances of precedent outcome from the epic testified in modern journalism.

243 Горан Максимовић (Ниш)
Three forgotten poets of Serbian Romanticism (Vasa Živković, Jovan Ilić, Stevan Vladislav Kaćanski)

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In this essay the points are on lifestyle, literature work, poetical ideas and importance of three forgotten poets of Serbian Romanticism: Vasa Živković (1819–1891), Jovan Ilić (1824–1901) and Stevan Vladislav Kaćanski (1829–1890). Particularly attention are on showing critical recepcion theirs works between contemporaries and theirs huge success and importance on poetical ways of Serbian Romanticism in the 19th century.

253 Agata Piasecka (Łódź)
The Images Referring to ‘Heart’ and ‘Soul’ vs. the Constant Language Units

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In the paper there have been analysed selected lexical units with the components ‘heart’ and ‘soul’, derived from both the general literary language and its dialect variation. The article depicts a variety of images connected with the units mentioned above. As it has been proved, the Russian words ‘heart’ and ‘soul’ are frequently used for describing human beings and take active part in defi ning interpersonal relations. Interestingly, even though they develop individual semantic potential, they share numerous common features. In the light of what has been said in the paper, it should be underlined that thanks to their semantic potential and flexibility the components in question participate in the process of creating cultural images in Russian language and life.

265 Ayşe Eziler Kiran (Ankara)
From Dialogism to polyphony in The Counterfeiters

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In this study dialogism and polyphony, which constitute André Gide’s stylistic characteristics in his novel The Counterfeiters (Les Faux-Monayeurs) are examined. In The Counterfeiters, dialogism appears between the extradiegetic narrator and the characters; and the discourses of each source are often mixed up. As for the polyphony, it places the character and his discourse into the diff erent points of view and it makes each one of them a center of focus. The reader reads two novels that are composed by mise en abyme, and hears two voices of two narrators. Dialogism, polyphony are realized by diff erent ways of narration: allusion, echo, mention, usage and irony…

279 Алма Чаркић (Тузла)
Grammarians on Interjections

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The subject of investigation of this paper are interjections in grammarians’ works from Ancient Greece and Rome until the present day. We can see from research conducted so far that particular interest in studying this linguistic phenomenon has emerged in the last thirty years when discourse became the epicentre of linguistic research and when language periphery became the focus of attention. Th us modern grammars treat interjections on the formal, semantic, and syntactic levels. As regards the formal criterion, interjections are mainly defi ned as sound clusters or sounds which express emotions, imitate natural sounds, but also serve for calling people or communicating with animals. According to that they have been classified in several ways. However, most grammarians find these classifications arbitrary, considering that one interjection can express different emotions or a single emotion can be expressed by different interjections. As regards the phonetic features of interjections, they tend to have unusual sound structure, sounds otherwise non-existent in language. In addition, according to the aforesaid grammars, interjections can easily replace other parts of speech, e.g. verbs, they assume the function of predicate, are not syntactically linked with other words in the sentence, and are therefore separated by a comma or an exclamation mark. Finally we can conclude that in defining interjections, they are most oft en observed on the semantic plane, even though there are many examples with all the three aspects – formal, semantic, and syntactic – intertwined.

291 Violetta Machnicka (Siedlce)
Words that Petrifi ed and Killed. On Shocking Camp Reality Presented by Zofia Kossak in Her Memoirs Entitled From the Abyss

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The present paper analyses numerous lexemes related to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, authenticated in the book by Zofia Kossak From the Abyss. In the paper, the selected camp terminology has been divided into 6 categories:
1) names of concentration camps and prisons;
2) surnames, names and nicknames of exceptionally cruel camp “butchers”;
3) names of functions;
4) names of basic categories of prisoners;
5) names of places in the camp;
6) ironic names.
All the words and phraseological structures, discussed in the paper, made the Birkenau camp prisoners think of physical and psychological pain. For that reason they have been classified as linguistic elements characterized emotions.

303 Јелена Фемић-Касапис (Београд)
Etymology of the terms φύσις, ούσία and ύπόστασις and their cognate types in other languages

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In this work we attempt to represent the etymological origin and lexical formation of the three Greek terms, φύσις, ούσία and ύπόστασις. All the se three nouns originate from very old Indo-European forms. As to the formation, the word φύσις appears to be a verb noun of φύομαι which finds its parallel in skr. root bhū–, „flourish, become, be“. Therefore, it is by the concepts of growing (growth), maturing or ripening in flora, that the Greek verb and its noun develop their meanings afterwards. In Latin it is natura.

313 Mирчета Вемић (Београд)
The general principles of stylization of geographic maps

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The stylization of geographic maps is related to the most general compositional part of their design, as in creating other visual or literary works. It is inseparable from the preceding semiotic compositional levels (the coding of the symbols and textualization by elements) and is related to them in terms of the dialectic law of the general, specific and individual. The stylization of cartographic works is an authorial procedure which progresses according to certain general principles, as follows: (1) the invariability and variability of symbols, (2) the centricity and eccentricity of representation, and (3) the summation and stratification in the organization of a cartographic image or model.
The principle of invariability and variability of symbols is tied with the design of systems (keys) of cartographic symbols. Invariable cartographic symbols are defined explicitly in terms of form, colour, shade, size, orientation, and texture, and in that form they are entered into the text of the map. As a rule, they represent certain geographic objects as centres of gravity in space. Variable symbols are defined implicitly in the key of symbols, while they assume their final form, orientation and size, and sometimes colour, shade and texture in the map. They have a certain stylistic freedom of divergence from the “zero” value, which is most often reflected in the shift or relocation of symbols relative to the geometric accuracy of map-making, as well as in the case of cartographic generalization, in terms of reshaping to accommodate smaller scale.
The principle of centricity and eccentricity reflects a powerful impulse of the human standpoint stemming from the author’s general worldview, as well as from his direct observation and inspiration. The centric tendency is associated with the egocentric nature of humans, who see themselves as the centre of the world, and objects as directed towards them or opposite them. The eccentric tendency represents any action of the primary centre directed towards an external target. The interaction of these tendencies produces tension, which the author releases by achieving a balance, the acceptable “real expression” – otherwise the work will seem inadequate. Planet Earth is the primary centric system and therefore many cartographic projections showing that have been defined. However, a human observer on the Earth’s surface cannot perceive its curvature, so that projections have been constructed which can develop the curved surface of the Earth onto the plane of the map. This principle of map-making existed even in the time when the Earth was thought to be a flat plane. It is interesting to note that the Earth was then represented in the form of a circle, while its centre used to be placed at the centre of the universe. Maps in the eccentric spatial system that are made nowadays were designed even in earlier times, the most well-known being those by Eratosthenes, Ptolemy and Peutinger.
The general stylistic principle of summation and stratification implies a spatialtemporal synthesis of the positions, perspectives or viewpoints of the author. In that sense, the summation and stratification in the organization of a cartographic image or model involve the structural and functional integration of the cartographic content, first in terms of elements (distinct layers such as relief, hydrography, populated areas, etc.), and then integrating those layers into a unified visual image or logical model of the map as a whole. In that process more numerous and closer links are established between symbols textualized within a single layer than between distinct layers. Spatial summation is primary relative to temporal summation, and in the process of putting the layers together into the map elements with partly scale or non-scale symbols become most prominent in the view field of the map. Therefore some layers overlap because some parts of the representation are closer to the eye and hide from view elements on lower planes. In that case the intersection of elements is applied, so that the closer elements cut across the subsequent ones, but these intersections are kept at a minimum. The final aim of the stylization of any geographic map is to achieve clarity, neatness and legibility of the text, and to draw an apt analogy with the object of mapping and elevate its perfect aesthetic expression.

327 Vladimir V. Maliavin (Tamkang)
Recovering the Senses: Taoist Response to the Modern Spiritual Crisis

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The author contends that the roots of modern global crisis are not so much economical or political but epistemological. It is the crisis of the classical subject-object opposition which does not fit the realities of the digital world. The Eastern religions can provide a solution of this crisis. In particular Taoism with its spiritual practices (meditation, Taijiquan etc.) presents technique of immediate communication which is a distinctive sign of to-day’s post-historical world. The article is an attempt to rethink the nature of human experience and related concepts such as image, spirit, practice, cultural style etc. The author explores the new kind of identity based on what can be called perceptual awareness. Recent trends in phenomenology and even mass culture are used as illustrations of this new turn of Western thought.

Book Reviewsdownload all reviews (1,62MB)

337 Андреј Стојановић (Београд)
Душка Кликовац, Језик и моћ: огледи из социолингвистике и стилистике. Београд: Библиотека XX век: Круг, 2008, стр. 347

348 Алма Чаркић (Тузла)
Aleksander Kiklewicz, Aspekty teorii względności lingwistycznej. Instytut dziennikarstwa i komunikacji społecznej Uniwersytetu Warminsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie, Olsztyn, 2007.

350 Ружица Бајић (Београд)
Stanislaw Puppel and Marta Bogusławska-Tafelska (editors), New pathways in Linguistics. Olsztyn: Institute of Modern Languages and Literature, University of Warmia i Mazury, 2008, стр. 191.

354 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Jaká je současná teorie literatury, pokud vůbec je, Миргород. Журнал‚ посвященный вопросам эпистемологии литературоведения. Выхоидит два раза в год. Номер 1‚ 2008. Siedlce.

356 Мирјана Гочанин (Београд)
Miloš Okuka, Srpski dijalekti, SKD Prosvjeta, Zagreb, 2008, 320.

360 Наташа Вуловић (Београд)
Драгана Мршевић-Радовић, Фразеологија и национална култура. Друштво за српски језик и књижевност Србије, Београд 2008, Београд, 2008, стр. 247.

365 Ружица Бајић (Београд)
Л. Я. Мещерякова, Жанр жития в тверской литературе ХVΙ–ХVΙΙΙ веков. Тверь, 2009, стр. 119.

367 Ivo Pospíšil (Brno)
Иво Поспишил, главный редактор журнала „Новая русистика“ и новая русистика на пороге 21 века.

Current Issuesdownload current issues (294KB)

369 Бранислав Цветковић (Београд)
Велики хадронски колајдер (ЛХЦ) у Европском центру за нуклеарна истраживања (ЦЕРН)

Anniversariesdownload anniversaries (1,13MB)

375 Е. А. Баженова (Пермь)
Стилистические исследования М. П. Котюровой

386 Наталия В. Данилевская (Пермь)
Мария Павловна как друг и учитель

391 Mилосав Ж. Чаркић (Београд)
Моји сусрети с професором Маријом Павловном Котјуровом

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